Anthropology 101 Exam 3 (Final) Review 2.docx - Boas Franz...

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· Boas, Franz · Disagreed that there were universal laws. Did his fieldwork among the Kwakiutl in the Pacific Northwest. Found that they were different, not savages or barbarians. Because of the structure of their language, speakers can’t just report an action, they have to explain how they know (Ex. Built into the grammar to say how you know: if you heard a woman washing clothes, if you were told, etc. Not just that you know) · Bohannan, Laura / Tiv · Wrote “Shakespeare in the Bush” (her account of telling a story of Hamlet to the Tiv villagers in Nigeria where she did her fieldwork) · Storytelling is very powerful, the elders that Bohannan worked with were very eager to hear the story of Hamlet · Chomsky, Noam · Universal grammar · There are certain basic grammatical principles that apply to all languages · because of the universal structure of our brains, universal capacity for language and thought processes · Labov, William · Page 325-327 in Kottak · A certain way of speaking can have symbolic power · Ex: Pronunciation of “r”, when we pronounce it now, it is more prestigious and sophisticated (department stores in New York City) · Lévi-Strauss, Claude / structuralism · father of structuralism. Universal structure to myth because of universal structure of our mind. Part of the universal structure of myths is binary thinking (good/bad, day/night) · Marx, Karl · Communism · Proletariat/Bourgeoisie · Turner, Victor · Studied liminality or “limbo” · Weber, Max / Protestant work ethic · Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
· Earthly success as a divine good? · Code switching · Speaker’s shift from one language to another · A strategic device so others don’t know what you’re saying · Creole · Language that borrows vocabulary and has its basis in French, but it uses some Spanish, English, and West African languages as well. · A blend of cultures that has become “the language of the subordinate” in Haiti · Official language is French, but only 10% of people speak it, Creole is the other 90% (the 10% are the privileged) · Diglossia · The existence of “high” (formal) and “low” (informal) dialects of a single language. Ex: GERMAN · Euphemism · Substitution of an inoffensive word for an unpleasant one · a mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant · “passed away” instead of “died” · Focal vocabulary · a set of words and distinctions that are important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience of activity). · Ex: ESKIMOS or SKIERS 18 different words for snow · Oftentimes changed to talk to outsiders · Promotes in-group solidarity and excludes outsiders · Grammar · The whole system and structure of a language.

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