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C2510_TLC_Spearmint_2008

C2510_TLC_Spearmint_2008 - Chemistry 2510 Introduction to...

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Chemistry 2510 Introduction to Experimental Organic Chemistry Fall 2008 Experiment #4 Analysis of Peppermint Leaf and Spearmint Leaf Extracts by Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Notebook : You need to summarize your experimental plan in your lab notebook. Be sure to include a table of all reagents and compounds that will be used in this experiment. Laboratory Observations: Be sure to record any observations during the laboratory. You must record exactly how much of the starting materials you started with and the weight of the isolated product. Results and Conclusions : Calculate the Rf for all compounds visible on your TLC plate. Through the use of standards, identify as many of the constituents of spearmint oil as possible. Relevant Reading: Technique 12, Thin-Layer Chromatography, pp 133—140. Background: A sample that requires analysis is often a mixture of many components in a complex matrix. For samples containing unknown compounds, the components must be separated from each other so that each individual component can be identified by other analytical methods. The separation properties of the components in a mixture are constant under constant conditions, and therefore once determined they can be used to identify and quantify each of the components. A mixture can be separated using the differences in physical or chemical properties of the individual components. As an example, dumping spaghetti and water in a colander separates the two components because the liquid water can run through the colander but the solid spaghetti cannot (assuming that it is not grossly overcooked as prepared in some university dining halls). Some water will stick to the spaghetti and some spaghetti may go down the drain because the colander is not 100% efficient. An analogous example is the filtering of a solid precipitate to separate it from a solution. These separations are based on the states of matter of the two components. Some other useful physical properties by which compounds can be separated are density, size, solubility, boiling point, and vapor pressure.
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