ISB202-2 - ISB 202 02/05/08 Proteins: A. General...

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ISB 202 02/05/08 Proteins: A. General Information 1. Comes from the Greek “Proteios” (1 st Place) 2. Largest and most diverse of the macromolecules 3. Found in all living organisms 4. Necessary in Diets of most animals; Some animals like cows have arrangements w/ other organisms to get protein B. What They Do 1. Enzymes (1000s in humans) are proteins that make reactions (rxns) go faster 2. Hormones turn rxns on or off (most hormones are proteins) 3. Transport- they help move molecules a. Through membranes b. in the blood 4. Structural- mechanical support. Part of: a. Hair b. Cartilage c. Bone d. Feathers 5. Contractile- Allow muscles to contact 6. Protective- Antibodies are proteins which fight diseases (immune-globulins) 7. Storage- Stored food in seed embryos and eggs 8. Toxins- Some kill bacteria and fungi 9. Communication- Cell Signaling (receptors on cell surface) C. Where do we get Proteins? *1. Meat has 43% Protein *2. Milk has 27% Protein
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*3. Eggs have 50% Protein *4. Plants *(Mostly in Seeds) about 1%-15% -Embryo (Baby Plants) Most of the protein is here -Endosperm- Mostly starch but some protein (Gluten-Provides stretch to dough) -The outer part of the seed is called the Bran, provides fiber but not much more -Ancestors learned how to fermentate any grain; also bread using flour & yeast -Yeast giving of CO2 causes bread to rise -Early on people found that putting a little soil or beer foam in dough would make it rise -No.1 food crop for people is rice -No.2 food crop is wheat D. Protein Malnutrition is especially a problem in child development -Protein is important in brain development -Damage is irreversible after about 5 yrs -Distended Bellies -*Malnutrition disease is called Kwashiorkor Protein Structure: A. Made up of Amino Acids B. There are 20 amino acids C. eight in Adults, 9 in children are “essential Amino Acids’) i.e. the body can’t produce them D. A Complete protein has all of the essential amino acids E. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins 1. Amine group NH 3 + 2. Carboxyl Group COO - 3. Carbon Atom with H + 4. An “R” Group is what makes proteins different, is what gives them their shape, bay be long or short, may include N and S atoms
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F. Protein Structure has four levels 1. Primary- The order (or sequence of two or more amino acids joined by a peptide and.) Dipeptide= A protein made up of 2 amino acids 2. Secondary- Shape of the molecule change due to covalent bonding between Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms. May be coiled or flat. H & O are sharing electrons 3. Tertiary a. Coils or sheets fold into loops b. Gives a 3D effect c. Due to attractions within the “R” groups 4. Quaternary a. Clumps of 3D tertiary groups b. Held together because of R groups and Covalent bonding c. Examples: Hemoglobin -Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which delivers oxygen throughout the body - 1,000,000,000 molecules of oxygen can be carried by each red blood cell Sickle Cell Hemoglobin= Glu (6) is replaced by Val (6) Sickle Cell Anemia causes fold in blood cell, isn’t smooth; clogs small blood vessels. Problem for
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ISB202-2 - ISB 202 02/05/08 Proteins: A. General...

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