CH 17 - CHAPTER 17 Review of 140B Review of 140B Aldehydes...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 17 Review of 140B Review of 140B Aldehydes and Ketones: The Carbonyl Group The Carbonyl Group NaBH 4 and LiAlH 4 reduce carbonyl groups but not carbon-carbon double bonds carbon carbon double bonds: The following reagents are strong bases and their reactions are irreversible. Less basic nucleophiles, such as water, alcohols, thiols and amines are not strongly exothermic and establish equilibria that can be pushed in either direction depending upon reaction conditions. Addition of strongly basic nucleophiles typically follow the nucleophilic addition-protonation pathway. Relatively weak nucleophiles are more suitable for the electrophilic protonation-addition mechanism. Addition of Water to Form Hydrates 17-6 Water hydrates the carbonyl group Water hydrates the carbonyl group. The addition of water to an aldehyde or ketone is catalyzed by either acid or base. The equilibrium reaction forms geminal diols , also called carbonyl hydrates : Stable hemiacetals are formed from reactive carbonyl compounds...
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CH 17 - CHAPTER 17 Review of 140B Review of 140B Aldehydes...

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