my answers PHL 304 Final

my answers PHL 304 Final - PHL 304 Contemporary Moral...

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PHL 304 Contemporary Moral Problems’ Sample Final Questions. There will be four questions from this list on the final exam of which you must answer three. Your answers should be around 200 words long each. 1) Explain and evaluate Garrett Hardin’s argument that we should not give aid to needy countries because of what he calls “the ratchet effect.” Giving to the world food bank is simply a disguised way of transferring money from the rich to the poor. It is a main cause of the ratchet effect because this causes the poor countries to depend on the richer countries permanently. He uses the phrase “ratchet effect” to describe how food aid keeps people alive who would otherwise die in a famine. They live and multiply in better times, making another bigger crisis inevitable, since the supply of food has not been increased. Hardin believes that not having enough food is a natural solution to overpopulation, and we are worsening the problem by sending over more food. It is basically a vicious cycle that the rich nations have caused. The input of food from a food bank acts as the pawl of a ratchet, preventing the population from retracing it steps to a lower level. The more food we give, the more babies are born. Reproduction pushes the population upward, inputs from 1
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the World Bank prevent its moving downward. The result: overpopulation! Hardin is saying that the rich giving aid are like a ratchet and are preventing the population from stabilizing. 2) What is the “tragedy of the commons”? Give a concrete example. Assess two solutions that have been proposed to this problem. It is when costs are shared but benefits are not. The tragedy of commons is the fundamental error with any open or shared system of ownership. When a property or other good is shared, each individual will take more than his or her fair share. It is a type of social trap, which involves conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. Example: a public pasture for livestock grazing. Each farmer will want to maximize the resource for his own benefit. Even if this means destroying the land, the farmer will still use it to maximize his own profit. After all, if one farmer does not maximize this resource, another farmer will. Solution 1: Privatization. Everyone pays for their own It would give people the
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my answers PHL 304 Final - PHL 304 Contemporary Moral...

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