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Immunology PHY209 Textbook Notes

Immunology PHY209 Textbook Notes - Immunology PHY209...

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Immunology PHY209 Textbook Notes October 18, 2008 The Key Players Leukocytes- white blood cells. Includes neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Leukocytes use the blood for transport and function in tissues and are key players in the immune system. Monocytes enter tissue to differentiate into macrophages. Lymphocytes can be either B cells, T cells or NK cells. Plasma Cells – differentiate from B lymphocytes. Its primary function is to synthesize and secrete antibodies. Macrophages- differentiate from monocytes. Has a number of key functions. 1) phagocytoic killing of microbes 2) extracellular killing via released toxic chemicals 3) process and present antigens to helper T cells 4) secrete cytokines involved in inflammation, activation and differentiation of helper T cells (IL -1 and TNF for activation of helper T cells) Dendritic cells – Macrophage like cells that are not derived from monocytes. B cells – mature in the bone marrow and has the following functions – 1) initiate antibody mediated immune response by binding specific antigens to its receptors 2) once activated, differentiate into plasma cells to secrete antibodies 3) present antigens to helper T cells. T cells – two types helper T cells (CD 4 protein present on plasma membrane) and cytotoxic T cells (CD 8 protein present on plasma membrane) . Helper T cells assist in the activation and function of B cells and cytotoxic T cells by secreting cytokines that stimulate the activation. Cytotoxic T cells are attack cells that travel directly to their target, bind them and kill them via secreted chemicals Cytokines Protein messengers produced not by distinct specialized glands but by a variety of individual cells. This allow components of the immune system to “talk” to each other. Cytokines function in nonspecific and specific immune responses. Interleukin 1/Tumor Necrosis Facror (IL-1/TNF): Secreted by antigen presenting cells B cells/Dendritic cells/macrophages Interleukin 2: Secreted by helper T cells mostly. It stimulates helper T cells, B cells and NK cells, and cytotoxic T cells to proliferate and divide. Working with interferon gamma, it also act on macrophages to turn them into activated macrophages that has enhanced killing ability. Interferons: Family of proteins secreted by most cells in response to viral infection. It binds to the plasma membrane receptors on the host cell and triggers the synthesis of dozens of different antiviral proteins by the cell. Interfeon –gamma: It is secreted by helper T cells and NK cells to act on NK cells and nearby macrophages to stimulate the proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic chemicals.
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Chemotaxins: secreted by cells in the injured area to attract neutrophils to the area of injury/attack.
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