PHL 304 Final-here it is!

PHL 304 Final-here it is! - PHL 304 Contemporary Moral...

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PHL 304 Contemporary Moral Problems Sample Final Questions. There will be four questions from this list on the final exam of which you must answer three. Your answers should be around 200 words long each. 1. Explain and evaluate Garrett Hardin’s argument that we should not give aid to needy countries because of what he calls “the ratchet effect.” 1 st ANSWER Hardin states that we should not give aid to needy countries because giving to a world food bank is just a disguised way of give from the rich to the poor. When more prosperous countries give to poorer countries they are saving them from not dying of starvation and dying causing them to keep living their lives and eventually reproducing which will cause the population to keep growing and more emergencies of lack of food to occur. Although it sounds very selfish people dying from famine helps overcrowded nations. The ratchet effect is doing something that you cannot take back. So the more we give to the world food bank then more emergencies will happen and then in the end as Hardin writes, the entire system will collapse causing a major catastrophe. 1
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2 ND ANSWER Metaphor of life poem claims that rich nations are lifeboats, and the citizens of poor nations are like private lifeboats. o Suppose that there is a capacity of 60 people in the lifeboat and there are 50 people in the lifeboat. There are a 100 people in the ocean. First option: If we try to life by the Christian ideal then we save everyone; however, everyone drowns. This shows complete justice and it is a complete disaster. Second option: allow 10 more people on we get rid of the safety factor. Additionally, who do we let in? How do we discriminate? Third option: admit no one. Solution is abhorrent and it is unjust. If you feel guilty about your place in the lifeboat then let someone else in. Reproduction: poor people reproduce at a higher rate o When things are owned privately people take care of them. Costs can be distributed equally, but benefits can't. Social systems which are stable have to take care of errors. need some sort of regulation by government authority. Criticizes the world food bank because it creates dependency. Certain countries would give food to the bank and other countries would get the food. There would never be an overlap. If we give aid to poor countries it results in overpopulation because the food is turned into babies. It prevents the population from dropping. Population stabilizes with carrying capacity of the land Extra food = more babies Aid acts like a ratchet – preventing the population from stabilizing. 3 RD ANSWER 2
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Hardin’s argument starts with the precondition of acceptance of responsibility to the acceptance of rights. The ratchet effect has to do with the prevention of impoverished nations from undergoing the natural cycle of overpopulation and then an event that controls population. He believes that nations, guided by spaceship ethics (viewing the
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PHL 304 Final-here it is! - PHL 304 Contemporary Moral...

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