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Midterm Review - Introduction Defining family US Census"Two...

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Introduction Defining family US Census: “Two or more individuals living together and related by blood, marriage, or adoption.” Public policy: in terms of dependence, hierarchical obligations—blood relationship, living together not necessary Family functions 1) Economic support 2) Emotional care 3) Regulation of sexual behavior 4) Reproduction 5) Socialization 6) Stratification Changes in function Elderly care shifted to government Age of dependency going up as more pursue higher ed. Family role in schooling decreased
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Perspectives on how families are doing Popenoe (1993) Demographer, 1960-1990 Defining family At least 1 guardian and 1dependent, emphasis on child dependents Includes homosexuals, cohabiters, etc. Evidence for decline in fertility rate age at marriage (marital delay) divorce rates o Cultural? Institutional? o 50% statistic includes higher order marriages o 1973 “no fault” divorce, BUT rates were increasing before then labor force participation o Especially for Black women w/young children nonmarital child-bearing Caution: Timeframe allows for convincing argument, but ignores bigger picture Coontz (1992) Historian, historical context Challenges 3 popular assertions 1) Women stayed home
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2) Children were better off 3) Families were more cohesive 50s & 60s as historic anomaly Good times economically Baby boom Defined gender roles Optimistic 90% eventually marry Marriages less permanent, more satisfying Too complex for all out “decline” O’Hare (2004) Despite factors w/deleterious effects… total # of children in US minority kids immigrant kids kids in states w/ below average child outcomes kids in single parent families ... Child well-being increased child poverty teen births, pregnancies, and abortions infant mortality Ex. of public policy mediating other factors affecting families Econ. expansion more parental employment Welfare Reform EITC expands state support for families Caution: 1991 as anomaly with high crime, teen pregnancy, drugs, etc.
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