Review for Prelim 2 - Question 1: Tocqueville on mobility...

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Unformatted text preview: Question 1: Tocqueville on mobility Nearly 175 years ago, Alexis de Tocqueville wrote that the US is an open society in which children who have known the sting of want have a good chance of moving up the class structure, while those born into more privileged classes face a risk of moving downward. Since then, the image of the US as a land of opportunity has become part of the American Dream, if not part of the American psyche. Describe current patterns of social mobility in the United States. To what extent is your description consistent with de Tocquevilles claim that there is much social mobility? Tocquevilles claim 1. There is much social mobility in the US 2. Those at the bottom have a good chance of moving up 3. Those at the top face a risk of moving downward Current patterns : Is the US the land of opportunity? Social Mobility- to what extent do people enter the same class/income quartile as their parents? **value assumption that open is better; open also allows for downward mobility** Opposite: inheritance/immobility End up in same class as parents or as where you began Intragenerational (career) v. intergenerational (parents to kids) 5 loosely Weberian classes: o Upper non-manual o Lower non-manual o Upper manual o Lower manual o Farm A. Key terms from Reed Absolute mobility : concerned with patterns and rates of movement between class origins and class destinations % of people who move up or down relative to their parents Affected by changes in supply of workers and demand for types of labor Ex. Increased demand for NM increases rates of upward mobility Relative mobility (social fluidity) : index of societal opennessrepresenting chances of access to more/less advantageous social positions between people coming from diff. social origins the extent to which advantages/disadvantages conferred by class birth affect social position Not affected by changes in the occupational structure between generations Ex. Increased demand for NM leaves odds ratio unchanged B. Two hypotheses 1. American exceptionalism : The absence of a legacy of aristocracy has allowed the US to become a more open society 2. Convergence hypothesis : As countries reach a common level of industrialization, relatively common levels of mobility will emerge C. Results 1. US has high rates of absolute mobility c.f. other advanced industrialized countries, due to high demand for NM workers, especially managers 60% mobility, 40% inheritance Structurally biased o 50% at top of class structure o 10% at bottom of class structure More upward mobility than downward mobility Increase in correlation between fathers and sons incomes since the 1980s According to Bradbury and Katz , families since 1970 have experienced less upward mobility, increased consistency, and about the same downward mobility 2. Current US trends in 2....
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Review for Prelim 2 - Question 1: Tocqueville on mobility...

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