20.pdf - 3 9 2010 ERASMUS Intensive Programme(IP GiMAR...

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3. 9. 2010 1 Sources of Geographical Data Milan Kore ň Technical University in Zvolen Slovakia ERASMUS Intensive Programme (IP) GiMAR Spetses, Greece 6th 17th September 2010 Sources of Geographical Data Primary sources Geodetic measurements Global navigation satellite systems Photogrammetry Remote sensing Aerial photographs Satellite imagery LIDAR, RADAR Secondary sources Maps Scanning, vectorising Geographical databases Import data files Standards Scanning Wide format scanner Georeferencing Usage map background vectorizing selected features all features Digitizing/Graphics Tablet GTCO / CalComp Tablet GTCO / CalComp DrawingBoard Tablets Active, passive Acoustic, electromagnetic, capacitive, optical cursor, stylus Geographical Data Exchange Direct import/export of data files Description provided by software developer proprietary or open Advantages well-defined and structured effective, fast Disadvantages requires specialized module, limited number of supported formats licenced unknown features Standard formats Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC), ISO, national standards Advantages open, free of charge Disadvantages generalized and complex Vector Data Vector data ArcGIS Ungenerate ASCII ArcGIS Shape-files OpenGIS: WFS, WKT, WKB, GML Computer Graphics CAD Systems (DXF, DWG, DGN, …) Simple Vector Graphics (SVG) WMF (Windows Metafile Format) Attributes CSV (Comma Separated Values) SQL, XML 1 100 100 200 100 END 2 200 100 200 200 END 3 200 200 100 200 100 200 100 100 END END
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3. 9. 2010 2 Raster and Image Data Raster data ArcGIS ASCII OpenGIS: WCS Images BIL: band interleaved by line BIP: band interleaved by pixel BSQ: band sequential JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, BMP, … ncols 130 nrows 130 xllcorner -54 yllcorner -16 cellsize 0.5 nodata_value -9999 -9999.00 15.23 -9999.00 30.22 12.24 12.47 -9999.00 -9999.00 -9999.00 -9999.00 -9999.00 32.42 22.95 18.25 10.38 6.62 6.22 6.22 -9999.00 -9999.00 6.45 6.45 27.66 27.20 6.73 22.28 6.79 6.87 6.93
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