Anthropology 101 Exam 101 study guideLila Abu-Lughod Reading: Women and Islam question ignores historical, political and economic causesWhite men saving brown women from brown women is rooted in colonialismBurqa is received by Americans as the ultimate sign of oppression, a local form of covering of the Pashtun ethnic group before Taliban rule, and a convention for symbolizing women’s modesty or respectabilityMany forms of covering and man meaningsVeiling as an agentive, voluntary actDoes not symbol women’s oppression, and Muslim women’s diversity should not be reduced to the veilNeed to be aware of and respect differencesSaving other women driven by a sense of superiority is ethnocentricCultural relativism and awareness of history gives respect for differencesLaura Bohannan reading:Highlights tension between the universal and the particularEthnographic research in practiceAuthor appears ethnocentricAnthropology’s role in producing harmful ideas about othersGregor Mendel: Pea plantsInherited discrete particles or unitsDominant and recessive traitsIndependent assortmentJean-Baptiste Lamarck:Charles Darwin:HMS BeagleOn the origin of species (Natural selection)Descent of manContribution: How evolution ( transformation of species; descent with modification) occurredCulture: Traditions and customs transmitted through learning, shared by individualswithin a group to a degree; often taken for granted, invisible, habituated, and feels natural. Culture is dynamic and changes over timeHolism: The whole of the human condition; past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture; connections across categories and scales (macro v. micro and individual v. collective)
Participant Observation: Ethnographic technique, taking part in the community you are observing. Involves first hand observation for 1-2 years and constant note takingpaying attention to hundreds of details of daily life. Key cultural consultants: Experts on a particular aspect of local life, people who teach an ethnographer about their cultureFour fields of anthropology:Anthropological archaeology: rather than direct observation, people study societies’ remains and interpret human behavior through cultural patterns of these remains. Objects of study are prehistoric, historic, and contemporary societies. Biological anthropology: Study of human biological diversity (paleoanthropology, human genetics, human growth and development, human biological plasticity, and primatology)Linguistic anthropology: The study of language in its social and cultural context throughout the world and overtime. Historical linguists explore how grammar and sound change over time. Sociolinguists examine how language varies based on social contextCultural anthropology: the comparative, cross-cultural study of human society and culture.