PSY220 Final Exam Material.docx

PSY220 Final Exam Material.docx - I Emotional Development a...

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I. Emotional Development a. Theories on the Nature and Emergence of Emotion i. Emotional Intelligence: 1. A set of abilities that contribute to competent social functioning 2. Better predictor than IQ of how well people will do in life a. Walter Mischel – preschoolers delaying gratification ii. The Nature of Emotions 1. Emotion is characterized by a motivational force or action tendency and by changes in physiology, subjective feelings, and overt behavior iii. Discrete Emotions Theory: 1. Emotions are innate and discrete from one another from early in life 2. Each emotion has specific bodily and facial reactions iv. The Functionalist Approach: 1. Role of environment in emotional development 2. Basic function of emotions is to promote action towards achieving a goal 3. Emotions are not discrete from one another, vary based on the social environment b. The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood i. To make interpretations of infants’ emotions objective, researchers have devised highly elaborate systems for coding the emotional meanings of infant’s expressions ii. These systems identify emotions first by coding dozens of facial cues and then by analyzing the combination in which these cues are present 1. Often hard to determine exactly which emotions infants are experiencing 2. Particularly difficult to differentiate among the various negative emotions that young infants express a. Positive Emotions i. Smiling is the first clear sign of happiness ii. Social smiles are directed towards people by 6-7 weeks old iii. 7 months – infant smiles at familiar people iv. 3-4 months – infants laugh v. 2 y.o. – children make other people laugh
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b. Negative Emotions i. General distress ii. 2 months – anger and sadness can be differentiated from stress and pain iii. 2 y.o. – Differentiating between anger and other emotions is not difficult iv. Distress: 1. Infants sometimes display emotions that seem incongruent with the situation they are experiencing v. Fear: 1. First signs of fear at 6-7 months when new people are no longer comforting a. Fear of strangers until age 2 2. Other fears evident from 7-12 months 3. Separation Anxiety: a. Distress when child is separated from someone they are attached to b. Increases at 8 -13 months then declines vi. Self-Conscious Emotions: 1. Guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride 2. Emerges during the 2 nd year of life a. 15-24 months of age when child is center of attention b. 3 years of age – pride is tied to level of performance 3. Guilt is associated with empathy for others and feelings of remorse and regret and the desire to make amends 4. Shame is not related to concern about others c. Normal Emotional Development in Childhood i. Acceptance by peers and achieving goals is source of happiness and pride ii. School-age children’s fears are about real life issues iii. Children become less intense with age d. Emotions in Adolescence i. Greater negative emotion than middle childhood ii. Increase In negative emotions and a decrease in positive
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