UM Chapter 11.pdf - Sex Gender and Sexuality Chapter 11 Sexual Development Sex Whether you are physically biologically male or female Gender All the

UM Chapter 11.pdf - Sex Gender and Sexuality Chapter 11...

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Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Chapter 11
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Sexual Development Sex Whether you are physically, biologically male or female Gender All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learned gender roles Transsexual A person’s physical, biological, sex conflicts with his or her preferred psychological and social gender roles
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Dimensions of Sex Genetic sex XX or XY chromosomes Hormonal sex predominance of androgens or estrogens Gonadal sex ovaries or testes Genital sex clitoris and vagina in females; penis and scrotum in males Gender identity one’s subjective sense of being male or female
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Genetic Sex X chromosome two initiate female development (XX) Y chromosome one along with an X produces a male (XY)
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Genetic Sex Klinefelter’s syndrome boy is born with an extra X chromosome (XXY); may appear feminine, have undersized sex organs, and be infertile Turner’s syndrome girl is born with only 1 X chromosome (X0); will be infertile and appear boyish as an adolescent
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Hormonal and Gonadal Sex Gonads: sex glands that affect sexual development and behavior by secre;ng hormones; female gonads are the ovaries ; male gonads are the testes Estrogens: female hormones Androgens: male hormones Testosterone: one of the androgens, secreted mainly by the testes; in the absence of testosterone, the embryo will develop female reproduc;ve organs and genitals, regardless of gene;c sex
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Hormonal and Gonadal Sex Intersexual person: ambiguous genital sexuality; having genitals that suggest both sexes Androgen insensitivity syndrome: inherited disorder; male embryos fail to develop male genitals because of an unresponsiveness to testosterone; externally female internally male Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: genetic abnormality; adrenals produce excess androgen, sometimes creating a female child with ambiguous genitals
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Genital Sex Primary sexual characteristics: sexual and reproductive organs Secondary sexual characteristics: features other than genitals and reproductive organs (breasts, facial hair, etc.) that appear at puberty Menarche: onset of menstruation; signals reproductive maturity Ovulation: release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries Menopause: end of monthly menstrual cycles; usually occurs in one’s late 40s or early 50s
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Sexual Orientation Degree of stable emotional and erotic attraction to the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes Heterosexual: romantically and erotically attracted to the opposite sex Homosexual: romantically and erotically attracted to the same sex Bisexual: romantically and erotically attracted to both sexes Asexual: not romantically or erotically attracted to either sex
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Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation may be partly hereditary Prenatal hormonal theory of homosexuality: theory about hormonal levels during pregnancy Parenting DOES NOT make children homosexual Homophobia: prejudice, fear, and dislike directed at homosexuals Heterosexism: belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality
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