Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Chapter 11
Sexual Development Sex Whether you are physically, biologically male or female Gender All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learned gender roles Transsexual A person’s physical, biological, sex conflicts with his or her preferred psychological and social gender roles
Dimensions of Sex Genetic sex XX or XY chromosomes Hormonal sex predominance of androgens or estrogens Gonadal sex ovaries or testes Genital sex clitoris and vagina in females; penis and scrotum in males Gender identity one’s subjective sense of being male or female
Genetic Sex X chromosome two initiate female development (XX) Y chromosome one along with an X produces a male (XY)
Genetic Sex Klinefelter’s syndrome boy is born with an extra X chromosome (XXY); may appear feminine, have undersized sex organs, and be infertile Turner’s syndrome girl is born with only 1 X chromosome (X0); will be infertile and appear boyish as an adolescent
Hormonal and Gonadal Sex • Gonads: sex glands that affect sexual development and behavior by secre;ng hormones; female gonads are the ovaries ; male gonads are the testes – Estrogens: female hormones – Androgens: male hormones • Testosterone: one of the androgens, secreted mainly by the testes; in the absence of testosterone, the embryo will develop female reproduc;ve organs and genitals, regardless of gene;c sex
Hormonal and Gonadal Sex Intersexual person: ambiguous genital sexuality; having genitals that suggest both sexes Androgen insensitivity syndrome: inherited disorder; male embryos fail to develop male genitals because of an unresponsiveness to testosterone; externally female internally male Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: genetic abnormality; adrenals produce excess androgen, sometimes creating a female child with ambiguous genitals
Genital Sex Primary sexual characteristics: sexual and reproductive organs Secondary sexual characteristics: features other than genitals and reproductive organs (breasts, facial hair, etc.) that appear at puberty Menarche: onset of menstruation; signals reproductive maturity Ovulation: release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries Menopause: end of monthly menstrual cycles; usually occurs in one’s late 40s or early 50s
Sexual Orientation Degree of stable emotional and erotic attraction to the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes Heterosexual: romantically and erotically attracted to the opposite sex Homosexual: romantically and erotically attracted to the same sex Bisexual: romantically and erotically attracted to both sexes Asexual: not romantically or erotically attracted to either sex
Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation may be partly hereditary Prenatal hormonal theory of homosexuality: theory about hormonal levels during pregnancy Parenting DOES NOT make children homosexual Homophobia: prejudice, fear, and dislike directed at homosexuals Heterosexism: belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality
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- Spring '12