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Unformatted text preview: Biology SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS CONNIE RYE, EAST MISSISSIPPI COMMUNITY COLLEGE ROBERT WISE, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, OSHKOSH VLADIMIR JURUKOVSKI, SUFFOLK COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE JEAN DESAIX, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL JUNG CHOI, GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY YAEL AVISSAR, RHODE ISLAND COLLEGE OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit . Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. ©2017 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). 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For questions regarding this licensing, please contact [email protected] Trademarks The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, OpenStax CNX logo, OpenStax Tutor name, Openstax Tutor logo, Connexions name, Connexions logo, Rice University name, and Rice University logo are not subject to the license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. PRINT BOOK ISBN-10 PRINT BOOK ISBN-13 PDF VERSION ISBN-10 PDF VERSION ISBN-13 ENHANCED TEXTBOOK ISBN-10 ENHANCED TEXTBOOK ISBN-13 Revision Number Original Publication Year 1-938168-09-7 978-1-938168-09-3 1-947172-02-6 978-1-947172-02-9 1-938168-21-6 978-1-938168-21-5 BM-2013-002(03/16)-BW 2013 OPENSTAX OpenStax provides free, peer-reviewed, openly licensed textbooks for introductory college and Advanced Placement® courses and low-cost, personalized courseware that helps students learn. 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Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) actively seeks opportunities to invest in organizations and thought leaders that have a sincere interest in implementing fundamental changes that not only yield immediate gains, but also repair broken systems for future generations. LJAF currently focuses its strategic investments on education, criminal justice, research integrity, and public accountability. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation has been making grants since 1967 to help solve social and environmental problems at home and around the world. The Foundation concentrates its resources on activities in education, the environment, global development and population, performing arts, and philanthropy, and makes grants to support disadvantaged communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. Calvin K. Kazanjian was the founder and president of Peter Paul (Almond Joy), Inc. He firmly believed that the more people understood about basic economics the happier and more prosperous they would be. Accordingly, he established the Calvin K. Kazanjian Economics Foundation Inc, in 1949 as a philanthropic, nonpolitical educational organization to support efforts that enhanced economic understanding. Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health with vaccines and other life-saving tools and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to significantly improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. The Maxfield Foundation supports projects with potential for high impact in science, education, sustainability, and other areas of social importance. Our mission at The Michelson 20MM Foundation is to grow access and success by eliminating unnecessary hurdles to affordability. We support the creation, sharing, and proliferation of more effective, more affordable educational content by leveraging disruptive technologies, open educational resources, and new models for collaboration between for-profit, nonprofit, and public entities. The Bill and Stephanie Sick Fund supports innovative projects in the areas of Education, Art, Science and Engineering. I WOULDN’T THIS PENS I LOOK BETTER TUDENT E ON A BRAND MEET SC E NEW IPAD QUIREMENT I MINI? URSES. THESE AR EER-REVIEWED TEXTS WR ROFESSIONAL CONTENT EVELOPERS. ADOPT A BO ODAY FOR A TURNKEY LASSROOM SOLUTION OR TO SUIT YOUR TEACHING PPROACH. FREE ONLINE Knowing where our textbooks are used can help us provide better services to students and receive more grant support for future projects. If you’re using an OpenStax textbook, either as required for your course or just as an extra resource, send your course syllabus to [email protected] and you’ll be entered to win an iPad Mini. If you don’t win, don’t worry – we’ll be holding a new contest each semester. Table of Contents Preface to Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1. The Chemistry of Life Chapter 1: The Study of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 The Science of Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: The Chemical Foundation of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks . . . . . 2.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 2. The Cell Chapter 4: Cell Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Studying Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 The Cytoskeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Components and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Passive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Active Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Bulk Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6: Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Energy and Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Enzymes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Energy in Living Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Glycolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8: Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9: Cell Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Propagation of the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Response to the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Cell Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 The Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . 7 17 33 34 46 53 65 66 67 76 83 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 103 106 109 117 122 126 135 136 143 151 155 165 166 169 174 177 180 191 192 196 198 201 205 208 210 219 219 224 231 241 242 251 255 258 269 269 273 279 285 287 Unit 3. Genetics Chapter 11: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 The Process of Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Sexual Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 12: Mendel's Experiments and Heredity . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability . . . . . . . 12.2 Characteristics and Traits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Laws of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13: Modern Understandings of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14: DNA Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.6 DNA Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Genes and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 The Genetic Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 16: Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 17: Biotechnology and Genomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 Biotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Mapping Genomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.4 Applying Genomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 4. Evolutionary Processes Chapter 18: Evolution and the Origin of Species . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1 Understanding Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Formation of New Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 19: The Evolution of Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1 Population Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Population Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Adaptive Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 20: Phylogenies and the History of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 5. Biological Diversity Chapter 21: Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections . . . . . . . . . . 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 22: Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This OpenStax book is available for free at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 295 305 313 314 319 330 345 346 350 363 364 366 373 376 378 381 389 389 394 397 401 405 415 416 418 422 425 427 430 431 439 439 450 453 456 459 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 468 476 484 491 492 495 501 511 511 517 523 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 535 542 549 554 563 564 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans . . . . . . . . . . 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 23: Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.2 Characteristics of Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.3 Groups of Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.4 Ecology of Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 24: Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.2 Classifications of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.3 Ecology of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens . . . . . . . . 24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life . . . . . . . Chapter 25: Seedless Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.1 Early Plant Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants . . . . . 25.3 Bryophytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 26: Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.2 Gymnosperms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.3 Angiosperms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.4 The Role of Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 27: Introduction to Animal Diversity . . . . . . 27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom . . . . . . . . . 27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals . . . . . . . 27.3 Animal Phylogeny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom Chapter 28: Invertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1 Phylum Porifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa . . . . . . . . . . 28.4 Superphylum Ecdysozoa . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.5 Superphylum Deuterostomia . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 29: Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.1 Chordates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.2 Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.3 Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.4 Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5 Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.6 Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.7 The Evolution of Primates . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 6. Plant Stru...
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