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Chp 1Glossary of Terms.docx

Chp 1Glossary of Terms.docx - Glossary of Terms...

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Glossary of Terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Select the first letter of the word you are seeking from the list aboveto jump to the appropriate section of the glossary or scroll down to it Return to Last Page Return to Menu - A - adaptive mechanism a behavior, strategy, or technique for obtaining food and surviving in a particular environment. Successful adaptive mechanisms provide a selective advantage in the competition for survival with other life forms. For humans, the most important adaptive mechanism is culture . anthropology the broad scientific study of human culture and biology. Anthropologists are interested in what it is to be human in all of our many different societies around the world today and in the past. In North American universities, the study of anthropology is usually divided into four main sub- disciplines: cultural anthropology , physical anthropology , archaeology , and linguistics . archaeology the systematic study of the material remains of human behavior in the past. Archaeologists reconstruct the prehistory and early history of societies and their cultures
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through an examination and interpretation of such things as house foundations, broken tools, and food refuse. artifact a thing that has been manufactured or intentionally modified for some use. Prehistoric stone tools and pots are examples of artifacts. Back to Top - B - biological anthropology the study of the non-cultural, or biological, aspects of humans and near humans. Biological anthropologists are usually involved in one of three different kinds of research: 1) non-human primate studies (usually in the wild), 2) recovering the fossil record of human evolution, and 3) studying human biological diversity, inheritance patterns, and non-cultural means of adapting to environmental stresses. Biological anthropology is also referred to as physical anthropology. Back to Top - C - culture the full range of learned behavior patterns that are acquired by people as members of a society. A culture is a complex, largely interconnected whole that consists of the knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, skills, and habits learned
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from parents and others in a society. Culture is the primary adaptive mechanism for humans. cultural anthropology the study of contemporary and recent historical cultures all over the world. The focus is on social organization, culture change, economic and political systems, and religion. Cultural anthropology is also referred to as social or sociocultural anthropology. cultural relativity suspending one's ethnocentric judgments in order to understand and appreciate another culture. Anthropologists try to learn about and interpret the various aspects of the culture they are studying in reference to that culture rather than to their own. This provides a better understanding of
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