3060 Cardiovascular diseases lecture 7 NT CS.ppt

3060 Cardiovascular diseases lecture 7 NT CS.ppt - 1...

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Cardiovascular diseases Chronic AV Valve Disease Cardiomyopathy Heartworm Aortic Stenosis Pulmonic Stenosis Ventricular-Septal Defect Patent Ductus arteriosis - Program/Cardiology/Residency-Training-Programs- Cardiology 1
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Cardiovascular system Functions heart and blood vessels Distributes oxygen nutrition essential fluids Hormones enzymes helps cells rid themselves of waste products aids in temperature regulation Very similar anatomy and function as the human cardiovascular system 2
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Cardiac anatomy Cardiac muscle One of 3 muscle types: 1 location has its own supply of electricity, and acts without any stimulation K, Na, and Ca channels 3
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How Does the Heart Beat? Each heart cell supplies its own electricity When sodium and calcium are pumped out of the heart cell, potassium is pumped in creates an imbalance/gradient many more sodium and potassium ions outside of the heart cell than inside Creates a "positive" charge outside of the heart cell , and the heart cell is now "polarized" The body eventually wants to correct this imbalance the opposite occurs
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How does the heart beat? Potassium rushes out while the sodium and calcium rush in The cell is now depolarized stays that way until the positive charge outside the cell again reaches a threshold and the flow once again reverses Every time this reversal of flow occurs, it generates a spark of electricity which races through the heart It is this electrical spark that causes heart cells to contract and the heart to beat.
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Cardiovascular anatomy The heart: 4 chambers and 4 sets of valves Atria- top; receives blood Ventricles- near apex; pumps blood AV valves Semilunar valves The systemic circulatory system Arteries Arterioles The pulmonary circulatory system Veins Venules return of blood to the heart veins hold 70% of the blood volume Contraction of the smooth muscle in the venous circulation increases blood return to the heart
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Cardiac anatomy 7
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Cardiovascular anatomy The pulmonary arteries, unlike the other arteries of the body, carry deoxygenated blood The pulmonary veins, unlike the other veins of the body, carry oxygenated blood
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Heart anatomy Even though each cell beats on its own, the electrical activity needs to be coordinated Sino-atrial node (SA node) located in RA coordinated beating of heart originates SA node stimulates the AV node location 9
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Heart Anatomy SA node = “pacemaker” it depolarizes at a faster rate than any other group of cells in the heart imposes that faster rate on the heart as a whole If the SA node stops beating, the AV node becomes the pacemaker has the next fastest rate of depolarization
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Blood Flow-RA->RV-> lung > LA>LV>aorta/body 11
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Cardiac anatomy 12
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Cardiac anatomy Heart surrounded by a thin layer of tissue, the pericardium Occasionally fluid can build up in the space between the pericardium and the heart 13
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