ch03.pptx - LECTURES IN THERMODYNAMICS Claus Borgnakke...

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LECTURES IN THERMODYNAMICS Claus Borgnakke CHAPTER 3 For the 8 th Edition of: Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Claus Borgnakke, Richard Sonntag John Wiley & Sons, 2013
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Chapter 3 The Energy Equation The First Law of Thermodynamics The Work in Simple Systems The Heat Transfer The Internal Energy Control Volume Analysis and Problem Solution Enthalpy, Specific Heats Applications and Special Considerations 2
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The Energy Equation Fundamental laws of classical physics: Mass, Momentum and Energy are conserved. You cannot create or destroy mass (m), momentum (mV) or total energy (E ). They can change form, but the total quantity remains constant. Total energy: E = me = U + KE + PE = m (u + ke + pe) = m (u + 1/2 V 2 + gZ) simple kinetic energy, potential energy For a given control volume any energy change is due to transfer in or out by work, heat transfer or flow. With no flow as in a control mass: cv = = + in – out Figure dictates equation and sign notation (your choice). 3
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The Energy Equation 4 Summed over time t 1 to t 2 the changes are E 2 – E 1 = 1 Q 2 1 W 2 1 Q 2 = dt ; 1 W 2 = dt E 1 , E 2 initial (state 1) and final (state 2) total energies so E 2 – E 1 = U 2 – U 1 + ½ m(V 2
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