6-3-biotechnology-and-batch-cultures (1).pdf

6-3-biotechnology-and-batch-cultures (1).pdf - D 6.3...

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www. a2biology101 .wordpress.com What is biotechnology? The term biotechnology refers to technological processes which involve the use of living organisms. Biotechnology today is used in a very wide range of fields. It can be utilised to help produce foodstuffs, drugs and many more products. Biotechnology was first described some 100 years ago, but the process itself has been happening for thousands of years, for example producing cheese and yoghurt. Purpose Examples Organisms involved Food production Cheese and yoghurt making Mycoprotein Bacterial growth in milk changes the flavour and texture to generate different foods, and the bacteria prevents the growth of other bacteria which would cause the food to spoil Growth of a specific fungus in a culture: the fungal mycelium produced is separated and processed as food Drug production Penicillin Insulin Penicillium fungus is grown in culture to produce the antibiotic as a by- product of its metabolism E. coli can be genetically modified to carry the human insulin gene so they manufacture and secrete the hormone Production of other substances Enzymes: pectinase A fungus, A. niger , is grown in certain conductions to produce and secrete the enzyme pectinase, used in fruit juice extraction Biotechnology makes use of microorganisms the use of fungi and bacteria is common because microorganisms: grow rapidly in favourable conditions, being able to grow sometimes at a generation rate (time taken to double in numbers of microorganisms in the batch) of just 30 minutes often produce proteins or chemicals that are given out to the surroundings, which we can harvest can be genetically engineered to produce specific desired products Cultures and the standard growth curve A culture is a population of one type of microorganism that has been grown under controlled conditions. A closed culture is when growth takes place in a vessel that s isolated from the external environment extra nutrients aren t added and waste products aren t removed from the vessel during growth. In such a closed culture, a population of microorganisms
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  • Summer '17
  • Prof. Mwatela

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