_01_CH151_CH1_v1.2_1pp.pdf - CH151 Chapter 1 1.1...

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CH151 – Chapter 1 1.1 Classifying Matter 1 Q: Assuming we had ideal, infinitely sharp scissors, would there be a limit to how many times we could cut a piece of US-letter-sized paper in half before we lost the “ essence of a paper ”? If so, how many times could we cut?
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Pure Substances : Elements & Compounds 2 } An atom is the smallest “unit” that retains unique chemical characteristics. } An element is made up of only one type of atom(s). } The periodic table of elements lists known elements. } Some elements are made of single atoms (He, Ne, …), most of two or more atoms (O 2 , N 2 , H 2 , S 8 , Fe metal, Cu metal) } A compound is made up of two or more types of atoms that are chemically joined/ bonded together. } Such as cholesterol, carbon dioxide, glucose, sodium chloride
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Mixtures 3 } Mixtures are formed of two or more pure substances (compounds & elements) and can be further classified as: } Heterogeneous mixtures composition of which is not uniform and varies from place to place. } An example would be muddy water, blood sample, or essentially anything in real world. } Homogeneous mixtures composition of which is (postulated to be) the same throughout , at submicroscopic molecular level. } An example would be air, brass, or urine, normal saline. } They are also known as “ solutions” .
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Separations 4 } When sophisticated purification methods are applied, such as extractions , filtration , recrystallization , distillation , chromatography , electrolysis , etc., the extent of “messiness” of real world heterogeneous mixtures can be decreased and we can obtain purer and purer, eventually homogeneous mixtures, which could ultimately be separated to pure compounds and elements . } As an example, consider separation of an element sodium and a compound water from sea water.
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Classification Flowchart 5
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1.2 The Periodic Table 6 } Periodic table lists and organizes all known elements. } A great on-line periodic table can be found at } The periodic table on the front-cover of our textbook gives basic information about elements in a following way: } The number above the element symbol represents the atomic number and the numbers below the symbol represent the atomic mass of the element.
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Periods vs. groups 7 Periods are “lines” in the table. Group are columns in the periodic table. Elements in the same groups have similar chemical properties.
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Group Names of Some Representative Elements 8 Each group has a numerical designation, some have names. Elements in groups 1A – 8A (or 1,2,13–18) are known as main group / representative elements . Groups with “B” designations (3–12, see next slide) contain transition elements .
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Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 10 Elements are categorized based on their electrical conductivity (ability to transfer electric current) into three broad categories: Metals ( à have high electrical conductivity) are shiny and ductile.
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