Preparation and Standardization of a Sodium Hydroxide Solution.docx

Preparation and Standardization of a Sodium Hydroxide Solution.docx

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Preparation and Standardization of a Sodium Hydroxide Solution Objective: To determine the normality of the sodium hydroxide solution, by experimental preparation and standardization of the sodium hydroxide solution with reasonable precision. Pre-lab Question: Pre-lab questions were attached on the first page. Introduction: An acid and a base react in aqueous solutions to form water and a salt is called a neutralization reaction. HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 4(aq) + 2NaOH (aq) → Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) 2HNO 3(aq) + Ba(OH) 2(aq) → Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) H + (aq) + OH - (aq) → H 2 O (l) In the first reaction, one mole of HCl neutralizes one mole of NaOH, however, in the second reaction, one mole of H 2 SO 4 neutralizes 2 moles of NaOH. In this situation, the acid and the base do not necessarily react in the same stoichiometric ratio. To avoid mathematical complication, “normality” is used as the concentration term for acids and bases, so that one concentration unit of an acid will always neutralize one unit of a base. The normality of a solution is defined as the number of gram equivalent weights (ew) of a solute per liter of solution (V):
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Normality ( N ) = Number of ewof solute volume of solution ( L ) = ¿ ew V Equivalent weight is the mass of a substance that will produce one mole of H + ions: #ew = Normality × Volume HCl → H + + Cl - NaOH → Na + + OH -
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