middle_ages.txt - Classical Era(1750-1800 1 Enlightenment...

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Classical Era (1750-1800) 1. Enlightenment: the application of rational, scientific principles to the social contract (morality, education and politics), especially in terms of social injustice/breaking down of monarchical and aristocratic societies/ so-called rise of the middle class / freedom of religion/ understanding of market economy Great thinkers of the age include: Immanuel Kant, Rousseau, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson 1776: American Revolution 1789: French Revolution Literature: continued expansion of the novel, examining social forces, women writers: Frances Burney (1752-1840); Jane Austen (1775-1817) 2. Classical refers to the parallel neo-classical period in the visual arts and architecture that was hugely influenced by Classical Greek and Roman models Classical revival: a reaction against the extravagance and exuberance of the Baroque (which term was first used as a derogatory description meaning misshapen black pearl) toward order and symmetry Various stimuli for these trends, in particular these two: archaeology: the excavations in Pompeii began in 1748; excavations in Greece began in 1751 led to the book The Antiquities of Athens (1762+); Winkelmann s A History of the Art of the Ancients (1764) architecture: revival of Palladian style of the Renaissance (this period itself considered a rebirth
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