Lecture+23.ppt - BIO2483 Final Exam Lecture material only...

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BIO2483 Final Exam - Lecture material only - Cumulative - Multiple choice (approx. 40 marks) - Short answer (approx. 28 marks) - No electronic aids
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1. Define the ‘pelagic zone.’ What type of autotroph is most common in this zone? (2) Sample questions
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Pelagic zone : Open water beyond the continental shelves; dominated by plankton
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2. What are four (4) biotic features that could potentially explain the failure of a herbivorous insect to establish on a tropical island. (2)
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- competition - predators - pathogens - absence of host plant
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3. Describe in words how to differentiate between geometric growth, exponential growth and logistic growth. (3)
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For both geometric growth and exponential growth the population increases by a constant proportion . However, for geometric growth a population reproduces in synchrony at discrete time periods, whereas for exponential growth individuals reproduce continuously . For logistic growth, a population increases rapidly at close to exponential growth, then stabilizes at a carrying capacity .
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4. Is oxygen a resource or a physical factor? Explain. (2)
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It can function as both. A Resource is a feature of the environment required for growth, survival, or reproduction, and which can be consumed to the point of depletion. In some environments (e.g. the open atmosphere) oxygen concentrations remain stable despite biological activity, while in other environments (e.g. aquatic sediments) oxygen is readily depleted.
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5. Draw a figure to describe the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. Be sure to properly label all lines and axis labels. (3)
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Conservation Biology
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Introduction As the human population has grown, and our use of resources has increased, we have destroyed the habitat of many species. A biodiversity crisis has developed. The World Conservation Union lists 16,913 species as threatened with extinction.
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Stabilization of populations requires expertise from several biological disciplines, as well as law, political science, and sociology. Conservation biology is an integrative discipline that applies the principles of ecology to the protection of biodiversity. Conservation biology —the scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biodiversity.
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Conservation biology is a value-based discipline. The scientific method calls for objectivity—collection and interpretation of data without bias. But it is not free of human values, and takes place within a larger social context.
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Rates of extinction are difficult to measure because the number of species on Earth currently is unknown. Extinction rates determined from the fossil record are used as background rates. For mammals and birds, the background rate is one species every 200 years. Biodiversity is declining globally.
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This is equivalent to an average species life span of 1 million to 10 million years.
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