Oneclass2483.pdf - Western Biology 2483A FINAL EXAM STUDY...

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Western Biology 2483A FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
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Predation and Herbivory Over half the species on Earth get energy by eating other organisms, in a variety of interactions. All are exploitation relationship in which one organism benefits by eating/directly harming another. Herbivore eats tissues of living plants or algae. Predator kills and eats other organisms ( prey ). Some predators, such as wolves, also eat berries, nuts, and leaves. Parasite lives in or on another organism ( host ), feeding on parts of it. Usually doesn’t kill the host. Some parasites ( pathogens ) cause disease. Parasitoids insects that lay an egg on/in another insect host. After hatching, larvae remain in the host (which they eat and often kill). Predators Both feed on multiple individuals of prey or food plants in their lifetimes Predators tend to concentrate effort in areas that yield abundant prey. Example: Wolf packs follow seasonal migrations of elk herds. Concentrate on which ever pray is most abundant. Ex. researchers provided guppies with two kinds of prey, they ate disproportionate amounts of whichever prey was most abundant. Most predators eat a broad range of prey species Specialist predators show a preference (ex. lynx eat more hares than expected based on hare abundance). Some predators forage (search) through their habitat for food. Other predators sit-and-wait , attacking prey that move within striking distance. Include sessile animals, such as barnacles, and carnivorous plants. Sit-and-wait predators (ex.) spiders relocate from areas of scarce prey to where prey is abundant. Predators may form a search image of the most common prey type and orient toward that prey. Learning enables them to become increasingly efficient at capturing the most common prey. In some cases, prey switching is consistent with optimal foraging theory. Herbivores Herbivores don t usually kill the food organisms as predators do. Herbivores eat different parts of the plant. Large herbivores may eat all aboveground parts, but most specialize on particular plant parts. Leaves are most commonly eaten, because they are often the most nutritious part, except for seeds. Herbivores can reduce the growth, survival, or reproduction of plants. Herbivores that eat seeds can impact reproductive success. Some herbivores feed on plant fluids by sucking sap, etc. Belowground herbivores can also have an impact. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
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Most herbivores feed on a narrow range of plants. Most insect herbivores feed on only one or a few plant species. Other herbivores (grasshoppers) feed on a wide range of species. Large browsers, such as deer, often switch from one tree or shrub species to another.
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