BIOL 204 Lecture 4 Outline - Genome Evolution-2.doc

BIOL 204 Lecture 4 Outline - Genome Evolution-2.doc - BIOL...

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BIOL 204 Lecture Outline 4 – Genome Evolution Learning Objectives: What is genetic expression ? Discuss and distinguish between transcription and translation Identify and discuss different types of mutation What is the evidence for the evolution of the genetic code ? Discuss the outcomes of comparative genomics (genome size in prokaryotes vs. eukaryote; genome size vs. number of genes) I. Genetic Expression a. Gene expression is the process by which DNA dictates the synthesis of proteins that lead to specific traits b. Inherited traits determined by genes c. Inherited DNA programs synthesis of polypeptides that contribute to proteins d. Protein Synthesis i. RNA (ribonucleic acid) bridges the gap between DNA and proteins ( Francis Crick’s Central Dogma ) Transcription occurs in nucleus 1. Synthesis of RNA from DNA ii. Translation – occurs in cytoplasm 1. Synthesis of polypeptides from RNA – occurs at ribosomes that link amino acids into polypeptide chains e. Genetic code i.
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