Bio 204 Practical 1 study guide .pdf

Bio 204 Practical 1 study guide .pdf - ​ ​ ​ ​ ​...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​Bio​ ​204​ ​Lab​ ​Practical​ ​#1​ ​(Labs​ ​1,2,&​ ​3) Lab​ ​#1​: ● Evolution​-​ ​modification​ ​with​ ​descent,​ ​changing​ ​over​ ​time​ ​through​ ​different generations. ● Descent​-​ ​generations​ ​past,​ ​present,​ ​and​ ​future.​ ​“Transfering​ ​of​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​from parent​ ​to​ ​offspring” ● Modification​-​ ​change.​ ​“Change​ ​in​ ​the​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​from​ ​parent​ ​to​ ​offspring,​ ​such that​ ​the​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​is​ ​different​ ​form​ ​the​ ​parents” ● Species​-​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​living​ ​organisms​ ​that​ ​are​ ​able​ ​to​ ​inbreed​ ​and​ ​pass​ ​on​ ​their genetic​ ​material. ● Natural​ ​selection​-​ ​being​ ​able​ ​to​ ​adapt​ ​to​ ​different​ ​environment​ ​and​ ​survive.​ ​“The differential​ ​contribution​ ​of​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​from​ ​genertaion​ ​to​ ​the​ ​next” ● Adaptation​-​ ​being​ ​able​ ​to​ ​survive​ ​by​ ​performing​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​function.​ ​“A​ ​structure​ ​or feature​ ​that​ ​performs​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​function​ ​and​ ​which​ ​itself​ ​brings​ ​about​ ​increased survival​ ​or​ ​reproduction.” ○ Define​ ​‘evolution’,​ ​‘natural​ ​selection’,​ ​and​ ​adaptation​ ​carefully.​ ​Try​ ​defining them​ ​all​ ​in​ ​one​ ​sentence​ ​together.​ ​You​ ​should​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​these​ ​easily without​ ​much​ ​thought. ● Systematics ○ How​ ​is​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​phylogeny​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​taxonomy? ○ The​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​phylogeny​ ​is​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​taxonomy​ ​by​ ​phylogeny means​ ​the​ ​study​ ​of​ ​evolution​ ​within​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​organisms.​ ​Taxonomy​ ​is​ ​a component​ ​of​ ​systematics​ ​that​ ​uses​ ​description,​ ​identification,​ ​nomenclature, and​ ​classification​ ​to​ ​help​ ​study​ ​living​ ​organisms​ ​or​ ​may​ ​be​ ​used​ ​in​ ​any​ ​field. So​ ​the​ ​two​ ​go​ ​hand​ ​in​ ​hand,​ ​because​ ​we​ ​use​ ​taxonomy​ ​to​ ​help​ ​us​ ​with​ ​the concept​ ​of​ ​phylogeny. ● *ALL​ ​PHYLOGENETIC​ ​TERMS* ● Cladogram​-​ ​a​ ​diagram​ ​that​ ​represents​ ​phylogeny,​ ​contains​ ​an​ ​ancestor​ ​and descents. ● Speciation​-​ ​the​ ​formation​ ​of​ ​two​ ​species​ ​from​ ​one​ ​common​ ​ancestor. ● Common​ ​ancestor​-​ ​two​ ​species​ ​have​ ​evolved​ ​from,​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more​ ​person​ ​claim descent. ● Apomorphy​-​ ​a​ ​new​ ​derived​ ​feature. ● Synapomorphy​-​ ​is​ ​an​ ​apomorphy​ ​that​ ​unites​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more​ ​linages ● Plesiomorphy​-​ ​the​ ​pre-exisiting​ ​ancestral​ ​state. ● Symplesiomorphy​-​ ​is​ ​also​ ​shared​ ​with​ ​other​ ​taxa​ ​that​ ​have​ ​an​ ​earlier​ ​last​ ​common ancestor​ ​with​ ​the​ ​taxa​ ​under​ ​consideration. ● Autapomorphy​-​ ​an​ ​apomorphy​ ​that​ ​occurs​ ​within​ ​a​ ​single​ ​lineage. ● Homology​-​ ​similiarty​ ​resulting​ ​from​ ​common​ ​ancestry. ● Homoplasy​-​ ​a​ ​character​ ​shared​ between​ ​a​ ​set​ ​of​ ​species​ ​but​ ​not​ ​their​ ​common ancestor. ● Convergence​-​ ​is​ ​the​ ​independent​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​a​ ​similar​ ​feature​ ​in​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more lineages.​ ​“​the​ ​tendency​ ​of​ ​unrelated​ ​animals​ ​and​ ​plants​ ​to​ ​evolve​ ​superficially similar​ ​characteristics​ ​under​ ​similar​ ​environmental​ ​conditions.” ● Reversal​-​ ​the​ ​loss​ ​of​ ​a​ ​derived​ ​feature​ ​with​ ​the​ ​re-establishment​ ​of​ ​an​ ​ancestral feature.​ ​ex)​ ​snakes​ ​losing​ ​their​ ​legs ● Monophyletic​-​ ​consists​ ​of​ ​a​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​and​ ​ALL​ ​of​ ​its​ ​descendents ● Paraphyletic​-​ ​includes​ ​the​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​but​ ​not​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​descendents​ ​of​ ​that ancestor. ● ​ ​Polyphyletic​-​ ​consists​ ​of​ ​a​ ​taxa​ ​whose​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​is​ ​NOT​ ​a​ ​member​ ​of​ ​that group. ● Outgroup​-​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​organisms​ ​who​ ​do​ ​not​ ​belong​ ​with​ ​the​ ​group​ ​whose evoultionary​ ​relationships​ ​are​ ​being​ ​studied. ● ​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​explain​ ​how​ ​parsimony​ ​is​ ​used​ ​to​ ​infer​ ​phylogenetic​ ​trees? ○ The​ ​principle​ ​of​ ​parsimony​ ​is​ ​that​ ​the​ ​cladogram​ ​with​ ​the​ ​fewest evolutionary​ ​steps​ ​is​ ​the​ ​“best”​ ​representaion​ ​of​ ​phylogeny. Lab​ ​#2​: ● Describe​ ​4​ ​steps​ ​by​ ​which​ ​life​ ​on​ ​earth​ ​evolved​ ​from​ ​organic​ ​compounds ○ 1)​ ​Self-​ ​replicating​ ​RNA​ ​functioning​ ​as​ ​a​ ​ctalytic​ ​enzyme. ○ 2)​ ​The​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​a​ ​membrane​ ​surrounding​ ​the​ ​RNA​ ​to​ ​form​ ​a​ ​cell. ○ 3)​ ​ ​The​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​proteins​ ​that​ ​replaced​ ​RNA​ ​as​ ​the​ ​enzyme​ ​for​ ​chemical reations. ○ 4)​ ​The​ ​replacing​ ​of​ ​RNA​ ​with​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​by​ ​a​ ​more​ ​chemically​ ​stable DNA​ ​molecule. ● What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​three​ ​domains​ ​of​ ​life? ○ Bacteria,​ ​Archaea,​ ​and​ ​Eukarya ● Which​ ​is​ ​the​ ​outgroup? ○ Bacteria​ ​is​ ​the​ ​outgroup ● What​ ​are​ ​some​ ​features​ ​that​ ​Bacteria​ ​and​ ​Archaea​ ​share? ○ Some​ ​features​ ​that​ ​Bacteria​ ​and​ ​Archaea​ ​share​ ​are,​ ​a​ ​cell​ ​wall​ ​that​ ​is​ ​lined with​ ​a​ ​plasma​ ​membrane​ ​that​ ​encloses​ ​cytoplasma,​ ​DNA,​ ​ribosomes,​ ​and enzymes​ ​inside​ ​the​ ​cell.​ ​They​ ​do​ ​not​ ​have​ ​a​ ​nucleus​ ​or​ ​organells​ ​or​ ​a cytoskeleton,​ ​and​ ​are​ ​mostly​ ​unicellular. ● Are​ ​these​ ​synapomorphies​ ​or​ ​symplesiomorphies? ○ These​ ​are​ ​symplesiomorphies. ● Name​ ​any​ ​synapomorphies​ ​shared​ ​by​ ​Archaea​ ​and​ ​Eukarya ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ They​ ​have​ ​RNA​ ​polymerase​ ​and​ ​ribosome​ ​RNAs​ ​that​ ​are​ ​similar​ ​to​ ​each other. What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​3​ ​standard​ ​forms​ ​of​ ​Bacteria? ○ Cocci​ ​(spherical) ○ Bacilli​ ​(rod) ○ Spirilloid​ ​(spiral) ​ ​Which​ ​specialized​ ​bacteria​ ​are​ ​filamentous? ○ Cyanobactria​ ​and​ ​streptococcus Where​ ​are ​Archaea​ ​likely​ ​and​ ​not​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​be​ ​observed,​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​manual? ○ They​ ​are​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​be​ ​found​ ​in​ ​extreme​ ​weather​ ​like​ ​very​ ​cold,​ ​hot,​ ​or​ ​salty places. Compare​ ​and​ ​contrast​ ​the​ ​4​ ​main​ ​types​ ​of​ ​Bacterial/Archaeal​ ​metabolism: ○ Hetero​ ​vs​ ​Auto:​ ​hetero​ ​require​ ​pre-exsisting​ ​organic​ ​compunds​ ​from​ ​the enviroment​ ​as​ ​their​ ​food.​ ​Auto​ ​make​ ​their​ ​own​ ​food​ ​from​ ​the​ ​co2​ ​in​ ​the​ ​air. ○ Photo​ ​vs​ ​Chemo:​ ​Photo​ ​use​ ​sunglight​ ​to​ ​help​ ​them​ ​make​ ​their​ ​energy/food. Chemo​ ​involves​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​organic​ ​and​ ​inorganic​ ​compounds​ ​to​ ​make​ ​their energy/food. Understand​ ​also​ ​saprobe​ ​vs.​ ​symbionts ○ Saprobe​-​ ​an​ ​organism​ ​that​ ​lives​ ​on​ ​a​ ​dead​ ​or​ ​decaying​ ​organic​ ​matter​ ​and feeds​ ​off​ ​that. ○ Symbionts​-​ ​have​ ​a​ ​host,​ ​are​ ​surviving/living​ ​of​ ​a​ ​live​ ​organism. Which​ ​Bacteria​ ​have​ ​heterocysts,​ ​what​ ​is​ ​their​ ​purpose,​ ​and​ ​what​ ​do​ ​they​ ​look​ ​like? ○ Some​ ​Cyanobacteria​ ​have​ ​heterocysts​ ​like​ ​Rhizobium.​ ​Their​ ​purpose​ ​is​ ​to convert​ ​the​ ​N2​ ​in​ ​the​ ​air​ ​to​ ​ammonia.​ ​They​ ​look​ ​like​ ​a​ ​big​ ​circle​ ​on​ ​the bacteria​ ​chain.​ ​Almost​ ​look​ ​like​ ​they​ ​are​ ​filled​ ​with​ ​water,​ ​usally​ ​lighter​ ​color than​ ​the​ ​rest​ ​of​ ​the​ ​chain.​ ​They​ ​are​ ​pretty​ ​big​ ​in​ ​size​ ​as​ ​well. Rhizobium​ ​serves​ ​the​ ​same​ ​purpose. ○ ​ ​What​ ​structures​ ​do​ ​they​ ​form​ ​with​ ​land​ ​plants? ■ They​ ​form​ ​a​ ​symbiotic​ ​mutualistic​ ​association​ ​with​ ​roots​ ​of​ ​land plants.​ ​They​ ​form​ ​nodules. ● What​ ​do​ ​Rhizobium​ ​and​ ​cyanobacteria​ ​have​ ​in​ ​common?What​ ​differs between​ ​them? ○ They​ ​both​ ​have​ ​heterocysts​ ​that​ ​convert​ ​N2​ ​to​ ​ammonia. Name​ ​all​ ​synapomorphies​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Eukarya ○ 1)​ ​they​ ​contain​ ​chromosomes,​ ​linear​ ​DNA​ ​accosited​ ​with​ ​histone​ ​proteins ○ 2)​ ​they​ ​have​ ​a​ ​nucleus ○ 3)​ ​they​ ​go​ ​through​ ​mitosis​ ​and​ ​meiosis ○ 4)​ ​they​ ​contain​ ​other​ ​organelles​ ​like​ ​the​ ​endoplasmic​ ​reticulum. ○ 5)​ ​they​ ​contain​ ​a​ ​cytoskeleton ● Some​ ​of​ ​these​ ​synapomorphies​ ​are​ ​the​ ​result​ ​of​ ​endosymbiosis.​ ​Explain​ ​this​ ​term, and​ ​how​ ​the​ ​modern​ ​Eukaryotic​ ​cell​ ​came​ ​to​ ​be. ○ Endosymbiosis​ ​means​ ​that​ ​once​ ​a​ ​bacterium​ ​cell​ ​was​ ​able​ ​to​ ​live​ ​by​ ​surviving off​ ​another​ ​living​ ​organism​ ​but​ ​eventually​ ​become​ ​super​ ​dependent​ ​on​ ​the organisim​ ​it​ ​became​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​it.​ ​Examples​ ​of​ ​this​ ​are​ ​the​ ​chloroplast​ ​and​ ​the mitochondria. ● Define​ ​mitosis​ ​and​ ​meiosis ○ Mitosis​-​ ​cell​ ​multiplication,​ ​the​ ​cell​ ​is​ ​the​ ​exact​ ​replica​ ​of​ ​the​ ​parent​ ​cell. ○ Meiosis​-​ ​cell​ ​division​ ​where​ ​the​ ​end​ ​product​ ​is​ ​four​ ​daughter​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​vary in​ ​genetic​ ​material.​ ​Half​ ​and​ ​Half​ ​from​ ​each​ ​parent​ ​cell. ● ​ ​Compare​ ​and​ ​contrast​ ​these​ ​two​ ​processes ○ The​ ​main​ ​difference​ ​is​ ​that​ ​during​ ​meiosis​ ​crossing​ ​over​ ​occurs​ ​which​ ​allows for​ ​genetic​ ​variation.​ ​Meaning​ ​the​ ​four​ ​daughter​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​are​ ​created​ ​will not​ ​be​ ​identical​ ​to​ ​their​ ​parent​ ​cells.​ ​They​ ​will​ ​contain​ ​50/50​ ​of​ ​their​ ​parents DNA.​ ​Also​ ​in​ ​mitosis​ ​the​ ​finishing​ ​product​ ​is​ ​two​ ​daughter​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​are identical​ ​and​ ​diploid.​ ​In​ ​meiosis​ ​the​ ​ending​ ​product​ ​is​ ​four​ ​daughter​ ​cells which​ ​are​ ​not​ ​identical​ ​and​ ​are​ ​haploid. ● ​ ​How​ ​many​ ​cells​ ​and​ ​chromosomes​ ​result​ ​from​ ​each? ○ Mitosis:​ ​2​ ​cells,​ ​2n​ ​(exact​ ​number​ ​as​ ​parent​ ​chromosomes) ○ Meiosis:​ ​4​ ​cells,​ ​1n​ ​(half​ ​of​ ​parent​ ​chromosomes) ● What​ ​is​ ​the​ ​point​ ​of​ ​sex?​ ​Why​ ​did​ ​it​ ​evolve,​ ​what​ ​advantage​ ​does​ ​it​ ​confer? ○ Sex​ ​gives​ ​of​ ​genetic​ ​variation.​ ​This​ ​explains​ ​why​ ​we​ ​do​ ​not​ ​all​ ​look​ ​alike.​ ​This also​ ​ties​ ​in​ ​with​ ​natural​ ​selection​ ​when​ ​a​ ​mutation​ ​occurs,​ ​and​ ​allows​ ​us​ ​to adapt​ ​and​ ​evolve. ● Why​ ​do​ ​some​ ​organisms​ ​(e.g.​ ​all​ ​Bacteria)​ ​persist​ ​without​ ​it? ○ ● Define/sketch​ ​the​ ​three​ ​Eukaryotic​ ​reproductive​ ​cycles:​ ​haplontic,​ ​diplontic, haplodiplontic ○ Haplontic​-​ ​having​ ​a​ ​life​ ​cycle​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​main​ ​form​ ​is​ ​haploid,​ ​but​ ​a​ ​diploid zygote​ ​is​ ​formed. ○ Diplontic​-​ ​having​ ​a​ ​life​ ​cycle​ ​in​ ​which​ ​main​ ​form​ ​is​ ​diploid,​ ​except​ ​for gametes. ○ Haplodiplontic​-​ ​gametes​ ​are​ ​not​ ​the​ ​direct​ ​result​ ​of​ ​a​ ​meiotic​ ​division. Diploid​ ​sporophyte​ ​cells​ ​undergo​ ​meiosis​ ​to​ ​produce​ ​haploid​ ​spores.​ ​Each spore​ ​goes​ ​through​ ​mitotic​ ​divisions​ ​to​ ​yield​ ​a​ ​multicellular,​ ​haploid gametophyte. Lab​ ​#3​: ● Why​ ​is​ ​“Basal​ ​Eukaryotes”​ ​in​ ​quotes​ ​inside​ ​your​ ​lab​ ​manual? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ “Basal​ ​Eukaryotes”​ ​are​ ​in​ ​quotes​ ​inside​ ​our​ ​lab​ ​manual​ ​because​ ​they​ ​lack mitochondira. Why​ ​is​ ​the​ ​Kingdom​ ​Protista​ ​no​ ​longer​ ​a​ ​valid​ ​taxon? ○ Because​ ​it​ ​does​ ​not​ ​reflect​ ​a​ ​real​ ​evolutionary​ ​history. What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​two​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​photosynthetic​ ​Eukaryotes​ ​we​ ​have​ ​talked​ ​about? ○ Dinoflagellates​ ​and​ ​Euglenids How​ ​are​ ​they​ ​related​ ​to​ ​one​ ​another​ ​(look​ ​at​ ​the​ ​cladogram​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​28)​ ​ ​Although​ ​both photosynthetic,​ ​how​ ​do​ ​their​ ​pigments​ ​differ? ○ Dinoflagellates​ and​ ​Euglenids​ ​are​ ​related​ ​by​ ​they​ ​both​ ​have​ ​two​ ​flagellas. However,​ ​Dinoflagellates​ ​have​ ​chlorophyll​ ​a​ ​and​ ​c​ ​and​ ​Euglenids​ ​contain chlorophyll​ ​a​ ​and​ ​b. What​ ​is​ ​meant​ ​by​ ​primary​ ​vs.​ ​secondary​ ​endosymbiotic​ ​events?​ ​(p.29) ○ Secondary​ ​endosymbiotic​ ​events​ ​means​ ​that​ ​the​ ​intact​ ​chloroplast​ ​or mitochondria​ ​were​ ​passed​ ​on​ ​from​ ​cell​ ​to​ ​cell​ ​with​ ​evolutionary modifications. Name​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Diplomonads​ ​and​ ​Parabasalids ○ ​ ​Diplomonads:​​ ​Giardia ○ Parabasalids:​ ​Trichomonas What​ ​Eukaryotic​ ​organelle​ ​are​ ​they​ ​missing? ○ The​ ​mitochondria Sketch​ ​an​ ​Amoebozoan​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.2​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​30. o​ ​Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out Define: ○ ​ ​Pseudopodia-​​ ​thin​ ​extensions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​cytoplasma,​ ​used​ ​in​ ​amoebozoans​ ​to move. ○ Amoeboid​ ​movement​-​ ​The​ ​movement​ ​of​ ​pseudopodia ○ Phagocytosis​-​ ​engulfing/​ ​breaking​ ​down​ ​food​ ​particles ○ contractile​ ​vacuole​-​ ​fills​ ​with​ ​water​ ​and​ ​then​ ​burst,​ ​helps​ ​psuh​ ​water​ ​our​ ​of the​ ​cell. Sketch​ ​a​ ​Euglenid​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.3​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​30.​ ​o Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out Define: ○ Flagella-​ ​motile​ ​organells​ ​that​ ​contain​ ​tubulin ○ Cilia-​ ​short​ ​flagella ○ Pellicle-​ ​extra​ ​layer​ ​of​ ​protein​ ​that​ ​is​ ​kinda​ ​looked​ ​at​ ​as​ ​the​ ​cell​ ​wall. ○ Eyespot-​ ​used​ ​to​ ​ditect​ ​light​ ​source ○ euglenoid​ ​movement-​ ​move​ ​by​ ​flowing,​ ​contracting,​ ​and​ ​expanding. Sketch​ ​a​ ​Ciliate​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.4​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​31. Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out ● How​ ​does​ ​Ciliate​ ​movement​ ​differ​ ​from​ ​amoeboid/euglenid​ ​movement? ○ They​ ​move​ ​like​ ​a​ ​wave​ ​like​ ​function. ● Sketch​ ​a​ ​Dinoflagellate​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.5​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​32. o​ ​Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out ● Define: ○ Zooxanthellae​-​ ​when​ ​a​ ​dinoflagellate​ ​is​ ​symbiotic ○ Bioluminescent​-​ ​emitting​ ​a​ ​flash​ ​or​ ​light ○ red​ ​tide​-​ ​toxic​ ​blooms​ ​that​ ​kill​ ​fishes ● Understand​ ​how​ ​these​ ​3​ ​terms​ ​have​ ​special​ ​meanings​ ​for​ ​Dinoflagellates ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern