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Bio 204 Practical 1 study guide .pdf

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Unformatted text preview: ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​Bio​ ​204​ ​Lab​ ​Practical​ ​#1​ ​(Labs​ ​1,2,&​ ​3) Lab​ ​#1​: ● Evolution​-​ ​modification​ ​with​ ​descent,​ ​changing​ ​over​ ​time​ ​through​ ​different generations. ● Descent​-​ ​generations​ ​past,​ ​present,​ ​and​ ​future.​ ​“Transfering​ ​of​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​from parent​ ​to​ ​offspring” ● Modification​-​ ​change.​ ​“Change​ ​in​ ​the​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​from​ ​parent​ ​to​ ​offspring,​ ​such that​ ​the​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​is​ ​different​ ​form​ ​the​ ​parents” ● Species​-​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​living​ ​organisms​ ​that​ ​are​ ​able​ ​to​ ​inbreed​ ​and​ ​pass​ ​on​ ​their genetic​ ​material. ● Natural​ ​selection​-​ ​being​ ​able​ ​to​ ​adapt​ ​to​ ​different​ ​environment​ ​and​ ​survive.​ ​“The differential​ ​contribution​ ​of​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​from​ ​genertaion​ ​to​ ​the​ ​next” ● Adaptation​-​ ​being​ ​able​ ​to​ ​survive​ ​by​ ​performing​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​function.​ ​“A​ ​structure​ ​or feature​ ​that​ ​performs​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​function​ ​and​ ​which​ ​itself​ ​brings​ ​about​ ​increased survival​ ​or​ ​reproduction.” ○ Define​ ​‘evolution’,​ ​‘natural​ ​selection’,​ ​and​ ​adaptation​ ​carefully.​ ​Try​ ​defining them​ ​all​ ​in​ ​one​ ​sentence​ ​together.​ ​You​ ​should​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​these​ ​easily without​ ​much​ ​thought. ● Systematics ○ How​ ​is​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​phylogeny​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​taxonomy? ○ The​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​phylogeny​ ​is​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​of​ ​taxonomy​ ​by​ ​phylogeny means​ ​the​ ​study​ ​of​ ​evolution​ ​within​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​organisms.​ ​Taxonomy​ ​is​ ​a component​ ​of​ ​systematics​ ​that​ ​uses​ ​description,​ ​identification,​ ​nomenclature, and​ ​classification​ ​to​ ​help​ ​study​ ​living​ ​organisms​ ​or​ ​may​ ​be​ ​used​ ​in​ ​any​ ​field. So​ ​the​ ​two​ ​go​ ​hand​ ​in​ ​hand,​ ​because​ ​we​ ​use​ ​taxonomy​ ​to​ ​help​ ​us​ ​with​ ​the concept​ ​of​ ​phylogeny. ● *ALL​ ​PHYLOGENETIC​ ​TERMS* ● Cladogram​-​ ​a​ ​diagram​ ​that​ ​represents​ ​phylogeny,​ ​contains​ ​an​ ​ancestor​ ​and descents. ● Speciation​-​ ​the​ ​formation​ ​of​ ​two​ ​species​ ​from​ ​one​ ​common​ ​ancestor. ● Common​ ​ancestor​-​ ​two​ ​species​ ​have​ ​evolved​ ​from,​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more​ ​person​ ​claim descent. ● Apomorphy​-​ ​a​ ​new​ ​derived​ ​feature. ● Synapomorphy​-​ ​is​ ​an​ ​apomorphy​ ​that​ ​unites​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more​ ​linages ● Plesiomorphy​-​ ​the​ ​pre-exisiting​ ​ancestral​ ​state. ● Symplesiomorphy​-​ ​is​ ​also​ ​shared​ ​with​ ​other​ ​taxa​ ​that​ ​have​ ​an​ ​earlier​ ​last​ ​common ancestor​ ​with​ ​the​ ​taxa​ ​under​ ​consideration. ● Autapomorphy​-​ ​an​ ​apomorphy​ ​that​ ​occurs​ ​within​ ​a​ ​single​ ​lineage. ● Homology​-​ ​similiarty​ ​resulting​ ​from​ ​common​ ​ancestry. ● Homoplasy​-​ ​a​ ​character​ ​shared​ between​ ​a​ ​set​ ​of​ ​species​ ​but​ ​not​ ​their​ ​common ancestor. ● Convergence​-​ ​is​ ​the​ ​independent​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​a​ ​similar​ ​feature​ ​in​ ​two​ ​or​ ​more lineages.​ ​“​the​ ​tendency​ ​of​ ​unrelated​ ​animals​ ​and​ ​plants​ ​to​ ​evolve​ ​superficially similar​ ​characteristics​ ​under​ ​similar​ ​environmental​ ​conditions.” ● Reversal​-​ ​the​ ​loss​ ​of​ ​a​ ​derived​ ​feature​ ​with​ ​the​ ​re-establishment​ ​of​ ​an​ ​ancestral feature.​ ​ex)​ ​snakes​ ​losing​ ​their​ ​legs ● Monophyletic​-​ ​consists​ ​of​ ​a​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​and​ ​ALL​ ​of​ ​its​ ​descendents ● Paraphyletic​-​ ​includes​ ​the​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​but​ ​not​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​descendents​ ​of​ ​that ancestor. ● ​ ​Polyphyletic​-​ ​consists​ ​of​ ​a​ ​taxa​ ​whose​ ​common​ ​ancestor​ ​is​ ​NOT​ ​a​ ​member​ ​of​ ​that group. ● Outgroup​-​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​organisms​ ​who​ ​do​ ​not​ ​belong​ ​with​ ​the​ ​group​ ​whose evoultionary​ ​relationships​ ​are​ ​being​ ​studied. ● ​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​explain​ ​how​ ​parsimony​ ​is​ ​used​ ​to​ ​infer​ ​phylogenetic​ ​trees? ○ The​ ​principle​ ​of​ ​parsimony​ ​is​ ​that​ ​the​ ​cladogram​ ​with​ ​the​ ​fewest evolutionary​ ​steps​ ​is​ ​the​ ​“best”​ ​representaion​ ​of​ ​phylogeny. Lab​ ​#2​: ● Describe​ ​4​ ​steps​ ​by​ ​which​ ​life​ ​on​ ​earth​ ​evolved​ ​from​ ​organic​ ​compounds ○ 1)​ ​Self-​ ​replicating​ ​RNA​ ​functioning​ ​as​ ​a​ ​ctalytic​ ​enzyme. ○ 2)​ ​The​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​a​ ​membrane​ ​surrounding​ ​the​ ​RNA​ ​to​ ​form​ ​a​ ​cell. ○ 3)​ ​ ​The​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​proteins​ ​that​ ​replaced​ ​RNA​ ​as​ ​the​ ​enzyme​ ​for​ ​chemical reations. ○ 4)​ ​The​ ​replacing​ ​of​ ​RNA​ ​with​ ​genetic​ ​material​ ​by​ ​a​ ​more​ ​chemically​ ​stable DNA​ ​molecule. ● What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​three​ ​domains​ ​of​ ​life? ○ Bacteria,​ ​Archaea,​ ​and​ ​Eukarya ● Which​ ​is​ ​the​ ​outgroup? ○ Bacteria​ ​is​ ​the​ ​outgroup ● What​ ​are​ ​some​ ​features​ ​that​ ​Bacteria​ ​and​ ​Archaea​ ​share? ○ Some​ ​features​ ​that​ ​Bacteria​ ​and​ ​Archaea​ ​share​ ​are,​ ​a​ ​cell​ ​wall​ ​that​ ​is​ ​lined with​ ​a​ ​plasma​ ​membrane​ ​that​ ​encloses​ ​cytoplasma,​ ​DNA,​ ​ribosomes,​ ​and enzymes​ ​inside​ ​the​ ​cell.​ ​They​ ​do​ ​not​ ​have​ ​a​ ​nucleus​ ​or​ ​organells​ ​or​ ​a cytoskeleton,​ ​and​ ​are​ ​mostly​ ​unicellular. ● Are​ ​these​ ​synapomorphies​ ​or​ ​symplesiomorphies? ○ These​ ​are​ ​symplesiomorphies. ● Name​ ​any​ ​synapomorphies​ ​shared​ ​by​ ​Archaea​ ​and​ ​Eukarya ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ They​ ​have​ ​RNA​ ​polymerase​ ​and​ ​ribosome​ ​RNAs​ ​that​ ​are​ ​similar​ ​to​ ​each other. What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​3​ ​standard​ ​forms​ ​of​ ​Bacteria? ○ Cocci​ ​(spherical) ○ Bacilli​ ​(rod) ○ Spirilloid​ ​(spiral) ​ ​Which​ ​specialized​ ​bacteria​ ​are​ ​filamentous? ○ Cyanobactria​ ​and​ ​streptococcus Where​ ​are ​Archaea​ ​likely​ ​and​ ​not​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​be​ ​observed,​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​manual? ○ They​ ​are​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​be​ ​found​ ​in​ ​extreme​ ​weather​ ​like​ ​very​ ​cold,​ ​hot,​ ​or​ ​salty places. Compare​ ​and​ ​contrast​ ​the​ ​4​ ​main​ ​types​ ​of​ ​Bacterial/Archaeal​ ​metabolism: ○ Hetero​ ​vs​ ​Auto:​ ​hetero​ ​require​ ​pre-exsisting​ ​organic​ ​compunds​ ​from​ ​the enviroment​ ​as​ ​their​ ​food.​ ​Auto​ ​make​ ​their​ ​own​ ​food​ ​from​ ​the​ ​co2​ ​in​ ​the​ ​air. ○ Photo​ ​vs​ ​Chemo:​ ​Photo​ ​use​ ​sunglight​ ​to​ ​help​ ​them​ ​make​ ​their​ ​energy/food. Chemo​ ​involves​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​organic​ ​and​ ​inorganic​ ​compounds​ ​to​ ​make​ ​their energy/food. Understand​ ​also​ ​saprobe​ ​vs.​ ​symbionts ○ Saprobe​-​ ​an​ ​organism​ ​that​ ​lives​ ​on​ ​a​ ​dead​ ​or​ ​decaying​ ​organic​ ​matter​ ​and feeds​ ​off​ ​that. ○ Symbionts​-​ ​have​ ​a​ ​host,​ ​are​ ​surviving/living​ ​of​ ​a​ ​live​ ​organism. Which​ ​Bacteria​ ​have​ ​heterocysts,​ ​what​ ​is​ ​their​ ​purpose,​ ​and​ ​what​ ​do​ ​they​ ​look​ ​like? ○ Some​ ​Cyanobacteria​ ​have​ ​heterocysts​ ​like​ ​Rhizobium.​ ​Their​ ​purpose​ ​is​ ​to convert​ ​the​ ​N2​ ​in​ ​the​ ​air​ ​to​ ​ammonia.​ ​They​ ​look​ ​like​ ​a​ ​big​ ​circle​ ​on​ ​the bacteria​ ​chain.​ ​Almost​ ​look​ ​like​ ​they​ ​are​ ​filled​ ​with​ ​water,​ ​usally​ ​lighter​ ​color than​ ​the​ ​rest​ ​of​ ​the​ ​chain.​ ​They​ ​are​ ​pretty​ ​big​ ​in​ ​size​ ​as​ ​well. Rhizobium​ ​serves​ ​the​ ​same​ ​purpose. ○ ​ ​What​ ​structures​ ​do​ ​they​ ​form​ ​with​ ​land​ ​plants? ■ They​ ​form​ ​a​ ​symbiotic​ ​mutualistic​ ​association​ ​with​ ​roots​ ​of​ ​land plants.​ ​They​ ​form​ ​nodules. ● What​ ​do​ ​Rhizobium​ ​and​ ​cyanobacteria​ ​have​ ​in​ ​common?What​ ​differs between​ ​them? ○ They​ ​both​ ​have​ ​heterocysts​ ​that​ ​convert​ ​N2​ ​to​ ​ammonia. Name​ ​all​ ​synapomorphies​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Eukarya ○ 1)​ ​they​ ​contain​ ​chromosomes,​ ​linear​ ​DNA​ ​accosited​ ​with​ ​histone​ ​proteins ○ 2)​ ​they​ ​have​ ​a​ ​nucleus ○ 3)​ ​they​ ​go​ ​through​ ​mitosis​ ​and​ ​meiosis ○ 4)​ ​they​ ​contain​ ​other​ ​organelles​ ​like​ ​the​ ​endoplasmic​ ​reticulum. ○ 5)​ ​they​ ​contain​ ​a​ ​cytoskeleton ● Some​ ​of​ ​these​ ​synapomorphies​ ​are​ ​the​ ​result​ ​of​ ​endosymbiosis.​ ​Explain​ ​this​ ​term, and​ ​how​ ​the​ ​modern​ ​Eukaryotic​ ​cell​ ​came​ ​to​ ​be. ○ Endosymbiosis​ ​means​ ​that​ ​once​ ​a​ ​bacterium​ ​cell​ ​was​ ​able​ ​to​ ​live​ ​by​ ​surviving off​ ​another​ ​living​ ​organism​ ​but​ ​eventually​ ​become​ ​super​ ​dependent​ ​on​ ​the organisim​ ​it​ ​became​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​it.​ ​Examples​ ​of​ ​this​ ​are​ ​the​ ​chloroplast​ ​and​ ​the mitochondria. ● Define​ ​mitosis​ ​and​ ​meiosis ○ Mitosis​-​ ​cell​ ​multiplication,​ ​the​ ​cell​ ​is​ ​the​ ​exact​ ​replica​ ​of​ ​the​ ​parent​ ​cell. ○ Meiosis​-​ ​cell​ ​division​ ​where​ ​the​ ​end​ ​product​ ​is​ ​four​ ​daughter​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​vary in​ ​genetic​ ​material.​ ​Half​ ​and​ ​Half​ ​from​ ​each​ ​parent​ ​cell. ● ​ ​Compare​ ​and​ ​contrast​ ​these​ ​two​ ​processes ○ The​ ​main​ ​difference​ ​is​ ​that​ ​during​ ​meiosis​ ​crossing​ ​over​ ​occurs​ ​which​ ​allows for​ ​genetic​ ​variation.​ ​Meaning​ ​the​ ​four​ ​daughter​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​are​ ​created​ ​will not​ ​be​ ​identical​ ​to​ ​their​ ​parent​ ​cells.​ ​They​ ​will​ ​contain​ ​50/50​ ​of​ ​their​ ​parents DNA.​ ​Also​ ​in​ ​mitosis​ ​the​ ​finishing​ ​product​ ​is​ ​two​ ​daughter​ ​cells​ ​that​ ​are identical​ ​and​ ​diploid.​ ​In​ ​meiosis​ ​the​ ​ending​ ​product​ ​is​ ​four​ ​daughter​ ​cells which​ ​are​ ​not​ ​identical​ ​and​ ​are​ ​haploid. ● ​ ​How​ ​many​ ​cells​ ​and​ ​chromosomes​ ​result​ ​from​ ​each? ○ Mitosis:​ ​2​ ​cells,​ ​2n​ ​(exact​ ​number​ ​as​ ​parent​ ​chromosomes) ○ Meiosis:​ ​4​ ​cells,​ ​1n​ ​(half​ ​of​ ​parent​ ​chromosomes) ● What​ ​is​ ​the​ ​point​ ​of​ ​sex?​ ​Why​ ​did​ ​it​ ​evolve,​ ​what​ ​advantage​ ​does​ ​it​ ​confer? ○ Sex​ ​gives​ ​of​ ​genetic​ ​variation.​ ​This​ ​explains​ ​why​ ​we​ ​do​ ​not​ ​all​ ​look​ ​alike.​ ​This also​ ​ties​ ​in​ ​with​ ​natural​ ​selection​ ​when​ ​a​ ​mutation​ ​occurs,​ ​and​ ​allows​ ​us​ ​to adapt​ ​and​ ​evolve. ● Why​ ​do​ ​some​ ​organisms​ ​(e.g.​ ​all​ ​Bacteria)​ ​persist​ ​without​ ​it? ○ ● Define/sketch​ ​the​ ​three​ ​Eukaryotic​ ​reproductive​ ​cycles:​ ​haplontic,​ ​diplontic, haplodiplontic ○ Haplontic​-​ ​having​ ​a​ ​life​ ​cycle​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​main​ ​form​ ​is​ ​haploid,​ ​but​ ​a​ ​diploid zygote​ ​is​ ​formed. ○ Diplontic​-​ ​having​ ​a​ ​life​ ​cycle​ ​in​ ​which​ ​main​ ​form​ ​is​ ​diploid,​ ​except​ ​for gametes. ○ Haplodiplontic​-​ ​gametes​ ​are​ ​not​ ​the​ ​direct​ ​result​ ​of​ ​a​ ​meiotic​ ​division. Diploid​ ​sporophyte​ ​cells​ ​undergo​ ​meiosis​ ​to​ ​produce​ ​haploid​ ​spores.​ ​Each spore​ ​goes​ ​through​ ​mitotic​ ​divisions​ ​to​ ​yield​ ​a​ ​multicellular,​ ​haploid gametophyte. Lab​ ​#3​: ● Why​ ​is​ ​“Basal​ ​Eukaryotes”​ ​in​ ​quotes​ ​inside​ ​your​ ​lab​ ​manual? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ “Basal​ ​Eukaryotes”​ ​are​ ​in​ ​quotes​ ​inside​ ​our​ ​lab​ ​manual​ ​because​ ​they​ ​lack mitochondira. Why​ ​is​ ​the​ ​Kingdom​ ​Protista​ ​no​ ​longer​ ​a​ ​valid​ ​taxon? ○ Because​ ​it​ ​does​ ​not​ ​reflect​ ​a​ ​real​ ​evolutionary​ ​history. What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​two​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​photosynthetic​ ​Eukaryotes​ ​we​ ​have​ ​talked​ ​about? ○ Dinoflagellates​ ​and​ ​Euglenids How​ ​are​ ​they​ ​related​ ​to​ ​one​ ​another​ ​(look​ ​at​ ​the​ ​cladogram​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​28)​ ​ ​Although​ ​both photosynthetic,​ ​how​ ​do​ ​their​ ​pigments​ ​differ? ○ Dinoflagellates​ and​ ​Euglenids​ ​are​ ​related​ ​by​ ​they​ ​both​ ​have​ ​two​ ​flagellas. However,​ ​Dinoflagellates​ ​have​ ​chlorophyll​ ​a​ ​and​ ​c​ ​and​ ​Euglenids​ ​contain chlorophyll​ ​a​ ​and​ ​b. What​ ​is​ ​meant​ ​by​ ​primary​ ​vs.​ ​secondary​ ​endosymbiotic​ ​events?​ ​(p.29) ○ Secondary​ ​endosymbiotic​ ​events​ ​means​ ​that​ ​the​ ​intact​ ​chloroplast​ ​or mitochondria​ ​were​ ​passed​ ​on​ ​from​ ​cell​ ​to​ ​cell​ ​with​ ​evolutionary modifications. Name​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Diplomonads​ ​and​ ​Parabasalids ○ ​ ​Diplomonads:​​ ​Giardia ○ Parabasalids:​ ​Trichomonas What​ ​Eukaryotic​ ​organelle​ ​are​ ​they​ ​missing? ○ The​ ​mitochondria Sketch​ ​an​ ​Amoebozoan​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.2​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​30. o​ ​Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out Define: ○ ​ ​Pseudopodia-​​ ​thin​ ​extensions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​cytoplasma,​ ​used​ ​in​ ​amoebozoans​ ​to move. ○ Amoeboid​ ​movement​-​ ​The​ ​movement​ ​of​ ​pseudopodia ○ Phagocytosis​-​ ​engulfing/​ ​breaking​ ​down​ ​food​ ​particles ○ contractile​ ​vacuole​-​ ​fills​ ​with​ ​water​ ​and​ ​then​ ​burst,​ ​helps​ ​psuh​ ​water​ ​our​ ​of the​ ​cell. Sketch​ ​a​ ​Euglenid​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.3​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​30.​ ​o Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out Define: ○ Flagella-​ ​motile​ ​organells​ ​that​ ​contain​ ​tubulin ○ Cilia-​ ​short​ ​flagella ○ Pellicle-​ ​extra​ ​layer​ ​of​ ​protein​ ​that​ ​is​ ​kinda​ ​looked​ ​at​ ​as​ ​the​ ​cell​ ​wall. ○ Eyespot-​ ​used​ ​to​ ​ditect​ ​light​ ​source ○ euglenoid​ ​movement-​ ​move​ ​by​ ​flowing,​ ​contracting,​ ​and​ ​expanding. Sketch​ ​a​ ​Ciliate​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.4​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​31. Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out ● How​ ​does​ ​Ciliate​ ​movement​ ​differ​ ​from​ ​amoeboid/euglenid​ ​movement? ○ They​ ​move​ ​like​ ​a​ ​wave​ ​like​ ​function. ● Sketch​ ​a​ ​Dinoflagellate​ ​from​ ​memory.​ ​Compare​ ​your​ ​drawing​ ​with​ ​Fig.​ ​3.5​ ​on​ ​p.​ ​32. o​ ​Sketch​ ​again​ ​if​ ​you​ ​left​ ​anything​ ​out ● Define: ○ Zooxanthellae​-​ ​when​ ​a​ ​dinoflagellate​ ​is​ ​symbiotic ○ Bioluminescent​-​ ​emitting​ ​a​ ​flash​ ​or​ ​light ○ red​ ​tide​-​ ​toxic​ ​blooms​ ​that​ ​kill​ ​fishes ● Understand​ ​how​ ​these​ ​3​ ​terms​ ​have​ ​special​ ​meanings​ ​for​ ​Dinoflagellates ...
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