3060 vaccines and immunity lecture 2 NT CS.ppt

3060 vaccines and immunity lecture 2 NT CS.ppt - Immunity...

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An animal’ s capacity to resist infection with a certain disease as a result of adequate levels of circulating antibodies and reactions of the cellular component of the immune system against the disease. The Dog It s Behavior, Nutrition and Health Case, L.P. . 1 Immunity
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Immunity What is “the immune system?” Primary role? Actually, there is no single “immune system” as there is a “skeletal system” and “nervous system” Responses made by the individual animal to noxious stimuli (antigens) occur across a number of physiological fields
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Lymphatic System Performs important tasks in the mammalian body Functions 1. closely tied to the cardiovascular system helps maintain the fluid balance between the blood vessels and the tissue 2. plays a large role in immunity 1. A series of vessels and lymph nodes that transmit antibodies, bacteria, and lymphocytes
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Lymphatic system Lymphatic vessels link together all of the secondary organs and also connect to the cardiovascular system route for the one-way flow of lymph from the tissues of the body to the heart Lymph clear, yellowish fluid collected from the interstitial spaces into lymphatic capillaries
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Lymph
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Lymphatic System divided into two groups – Primary Organs: thymus gland and the bone marrow regulate production and differentiation of lymphocytes – Secondary Organs: lymphatic vessels lymph nodes aggregated lymphoid tissue spleen
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Lymph nodes round or bean-shaped structures widely distributed embedded in connective tissue or fat palpate concentrated in the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions Produce lymphocytes
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Immune system immune system : protects the body from many kinds of disease- causing agents(bacteria, viruses, toxins, parasites) RECOGNIZES SELF VS FOREIGN Molecules on cell surface 2 functional parts: innate portion first line of defense Nonspecific provides protection from many foreign invaders Ex:
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Immune system adaptive portion more specific reacts to antigens uses antibodies and cell-mediated immunity activated when innate portion fails has memory to foreign substances: ex: passive immunity active immunity Autoimmunity Hypersensitivity immunodeficiency
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Cells of the Immune system 1. Monocytes and macrophages : mature in bone marrow 1. Monocytes-bloodstream 2. Macrophages –enter tissues 2 . Granulocytes : phagocytes 3. Lymphocytes: 'born' in the bone marrow are 'educated' as they mature Some go to the thymus gland and are educated there T cells Some go to fetal liver or bone marrow to be educated B cells
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Immunity-Cellular response Once educated, the B and T lymphocytes are then employed and move throughout the body accumulate in the lymph nodes and spleen
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Cellular response B cell response(humoral immunity) B cells make antibodies disease-fighting proteins (plasma cells or
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