MCB3020ExamTWOStudyGuide (1) (1).docx

MCB3020ExamTWOStudyGuide (1) (1).docx - MCB 3020 Exam TWO...

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MCB 3020 Exam TWO Study Guide 1. List the laws of thermodynamic and describe their relevance in the chemical reactions The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed and redistributed. Therefore, the total energy in the universe remains constant. The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy( or disorder) in the universe is constantly increasing. Chemical and physical laws dictate that the universe as a system is constantly moving toward a state of increasing disorder. 2. Define the standard reduction potential. Why aerobic grow generates the highest amount of energy (ATP). How this value plays a role in organization of electron transport system. Compare E o of aerobic and anaerobic respiration The equilibrium constant for an oxidation reduction reaction is a measure of a reducing agent’s tendency to lose electrons. A compound with a more negative Eo is a better electron donor, and a compound with a more positive Eo is a better electron acceptor. The greater the difference between the Eo for the electron acceptor and the Eo for the electron donor, the more energy is released from a set of oxidation-reduction reactions, that is, the delta G is more negative. In the electron transport chain, electrons move from electron carriers with a more negative Eo to electron carriers with a more positive Eo Aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic respiration because oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor with the greatest Eo- larger than any terminal electron acceptor used in anaerobic respiration. For this reason, aerobic respiration generates the greatest amount of energy. 3. Describe the flow of electron in fermentation and respiration. What happened to the electron in each of the above processes Respiration is an efficient method of producing energy that involves the oxidation of organic molecules such as gulcose. It involves the oxidation of a molecule like glucose and the passage of an electron down an electron transport chain. The energy released from these stepwise redox reaction is used to pump protons across a membrane, generating a proton motive force. Fermentation is an inefficient method of producing energy that involves only substrate level phosphorylation, or the enzymatic transfer of a phosphate group from a high energy substrate to ADP, forming ATP. This process yields far less ATP than oxidative phosphorylation, which produces ATP indirectly. In fermentation, glucose is oxidized and an endogenous receptor is reduced. The endogenous receptor is then regenerated via cellular processes that produce lactic acid, ethanol, propionate, isopropanol, acetate, butanol, butyrate, and 2,3-butanediol. 4. Describe how enzymes are involved in chemical reactions. (activation energy, lowering Eo An enzyme is a biological catalyst that speeds up the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy- the energy needed for the reaction to proceed though its high energy transition state.
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  • Spring '08
  • Ogden

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