E3 study quide.docx - 1.What is meant by recombinant DNA...

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1.What is meant by recombinant DNA? Name the tools used to make a recombinant DNA. Example; how you cut DNA/ track the DNA, how you introduce the DNA to the host cell. What is meant by gene library? Recombinant DNA is DNA containing fragments from two or more different sources. The basic mechanism of gene cloning is as follows: 1. Isolate the plasmid DNA from a bacterial cell 2. Isolate the DNA of interest 3. Insert the gene of interest into the plasmid DNA, forming recombinant DNA. 4. Insert the recombinant DNA into a bacterium, such as E. coli 5. Culture the bacteria, growing many identical copies Standard cloning techniques make use of restriction enzymes- a type of ENDONUCLEASE that is an important tool that allows scientists to cut up the DNA at specific sites. A cloning vector provides a means for transferring a gene of interest to a host organism during the cloning process. The vector usually uses a marker (such as an antibiotic resistance gene or a marker that causes the cell to turn a certain color). This allows scientist to easily identify the bacteria with the plasmid that contains the gene of interest. Gene library- collection of an organism’s entire genomic DNA, which is stored in a population of identical vectors, each of which has a fragment of the DNA. 2.what is horizontal gene transfer and its significance in spread of genes in population Horizontal gene transfer- is the transmission of genetic information between organisms in a manner other than traditional sexual or asexual reproduction. Horizontal gene transfer produces genetic recombination, or the creation of new combination of alleles through the exchange of genetic information. It can be used to exchange genes between members of the same species, or to exchange genes of different species. HGT can even allow the exchange of genetic information between domains, such as between prok and euk. 3.Give examples of horizontal gene transfer and significance of each. 1. Conjugation- involves the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct contact. The genetic material contained within a circular plasmid is directly transferred from one cell to another via a bridgelike structure called a pilus, which is part of a Type IV secretion system. 2. Transformation- involves the direct uptake of genetic material from a bacterium’s surroundings. Transformation is extremely rare in nature, but it is commonly used in the laboratory. 3. Transduction- involves the transfer of genetic information from one bacterium’s to another via a virus. 4.Differentiate between generalized and specialized transduction. Generalized transduction can involve the transfer of any bacterial gene to a recipient bacterium using a phage. Specialized transduction involves the transfer of a restricted set of only a few, specific bacterial genes to another bacterium via a phage.
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  • Spring '08
  • Ogden
  • DNA

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