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Psychology Test 1 Study Guide.docx

Psychology Test 1 Study Guide.docx - Psychology-The...

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Psychology: -The scientific study of behavior and the mind (mental process) Two Largest subdivisions of psychology: -1 st Clinical Psychology Testing, diagnosis, and treatment of people with psychological problems State licensed or certified Usually work in private offices, clinics, or hospitals -2 nd Counseling Psychology Help People with issues more commonly faced ex. Anxiety, depression (limited role in psychotherapy) Often Specialize in family, marital, career State licensed or certified Difference between psychologist and psychiatrist -psychiatrist are medical doctors M.D. -Psychologist Ph D. Describe the new field of neuroscience -idk The Role of Research in Psychology -we seek answers using the scientific method The three disciplines psychology emerged out of 1.philosophy 2.physiology 3.medicine Wilhem Wundts approach to the study of the consciousness -Mental experiences created by sensory-perceptual systems -wanted to identify the basic elements of consciousness and describe how they are organized and how they relate to one another -used introspection (looking inwards) -quality and intensity are two essential elements to sensation -began psychology’s transformation from the philosophy of mental process to the science of mental process Edward Titchener’s approach to the study of psychology and how it became known as structuralism - It became structuralism because he was trying to define the structure of consciousness 1
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- He studied Wundt’s basic elements of consciousness as well as images and other aspects of conscious experience that are harder to quantify - Titchener added clearness as an element of sensation - Student of Wundt and also used introspection The primary focus of Gestalts Psychologists -Said that whole shape of the consciousness isn’t the same as the sum of its parts; rejected structuralism and Wundt Sigmund Freud’s ideas about the role of the unconscious mind: -studied unconscious- psychoanalysis and all behavior is caused by psychological process at an unconscious level -Freud had presumed that all behavior and mental processes have physical causes somewhere in the nervous system -Freud concluded that the causes of these people’s physical problems were not physical. The real causes, were deep seated problems that the patients had pushed out of the consciousness. -he came to believe that all behavior is motivated by psychological processes, especially by mental conflicts that occur without our awareness, at an unconscious level. -body of work is psychoanalysis William James functionalism and discuss its relationship to Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution -focused on the role of the consciousness in helping us adapt to our environment -rejected structuralism -how mental processes work to our advantage/ differ from person to person -focused on the role of consciousness in guiding people’s ability to make decisions, solve problems, and the like (functionalism) -james wanted to understand how images, sensations, memories, and other mental
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