Ch. 2 Understanding Cultural Differences(1) (1).pptx

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Chapter 2: Understanding Cultural Differences
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Personality & culture Cultural context helps to understand what individuals are thinking and why Collective culture and personality have a reciprocal relationship Two ways to think about the relationship between culture and personality: 1. How culture shapes personality traits 2. How culture influences the way people see themselves Universal ‘big 5’ factors – extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience •. Are seen across cultures •. BUT, really haven’t compared against cultures that are very different from western samples. •. Some argue there are differences in collectivist cultures (e.g. China) and individualist cultures (US).
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Managing Cultural Complexity In an attempt to deal with complexity, we try to simplify things. Stereotypes – a way of oversimplifying people and sorting into categories In-group vs. out-group – in-group ‘better’ than the out-group In-group – people like self; can differentiate them or view them as ‘people in their own right;’ Out-group – people outside or perceived different from self; view them as ‘all the same.’ Prejudice - preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience; bias; harm or injury that results or may result from some action or judgment. Neuropsychological research has supported the idea that cultural learning about particular ‘racial’ groups may also be a factor as opposed to the ‘out-group’ view. Intimate link between accepting others and being accepted by others.
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Culture Shock Attempts to actively deal with a succession of new challenges in a new culture Ward, Bochner & Furnham (2001) model distinguishes: Affect – how people feel Behavior – what people do Cognitive – what people think and how they perceive their situation Considers the cultural gap
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Culture Shock Processes involved in coping with cultural change AFFECT: Stress and Coping Theories Affective outcomes: Psychological adjustment Processes involved in developing, changing & maintaining identity Cognitive outcomes: Cultural identity and intergroup perceptions Behavioral outcomes: Sociocultural adaptation Processes involved in acquiring specific skills BEHAVIOUR: Culture Learning Theories COGNITIONS: Social Identification Theories Figure 2.1 The ABC model of 'culture shock'. Reproduced from Ward et al., 2001
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Acculturation Process of transition that is brought about by the meeting of peoples from two
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