Ch. 15 Structure of and Function of Neurologic System (Quiz).pdf

Ch. 15 Structure of and Function of Neurologic System (Quiz).pdf

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Nervous tissues: Neurons (primary information/ communication cell)+ neuroganglial cells ( structure support and nutrition for neurons, remove debris, increase speed of impulses, process and store information [i.e., memory]) - Fuel source: glucose, but insulin is not required for cellular glucose reuptake a. Neurofilaments + neurofibrils: provide structural support, movement of neuron process (amoebae and WBC) i. Microtubule: transport of cellular products ii. Nissl substances: endoplasmic reticulum +ribosome--> protein synthesis iii. Cellular constituents of Neurons b. Olfactory neurons in the nose continue to divide throughout life c. Neurons 1. [Cells of the nervous system] Screen clipping taken: 3/28/2017 7:34 PM Nuclei: dense packed cell bodies in the CNS 1) Ganglia/ Plexuses: a group of cell bodies in the PNS 2) Soma: cell body i. Dendritic zone: receptive part to receive a stimulus and continues further conduction 1) Dendrites: extensions to carry impulses toward the cell body ii. Axon hillock: cone-shaped organelle-free area where the axon leaves the cell body 1) Fascicles: in large nerves, axons are bundled together in fascicles 2) Insulator to allow ions to follow between segments rather than along the entire length of the membrane --> increase velocity of the neuronal conduction ==> saltatory conduction a) Myelin: a lipid insulating layer covering axon (myelin sheath) 3) Unmyelinated: When Schwann cells are loosely wrapped around the axon --> neuronal conduction is not increased a) Neurilemma (Schwann sheath): connective tissue around each axon in between endoneurium and myelin sheath 4) Divergence: ability of the branching axons to influence many different neurons Convergence: branches converging on and influencing one or a few neurons Able to branch at the nodes a) Nodes of Ranvier: regularly interrupted neurilemma and myelin sheath 5) Larger axons transmit impulses faster 6) Axon: long, conductive projections from the cell body to carry nerve impulses AWAY from the cell body iii. Structure of neuron [ Soma, Dendrites, and Axons] a. Unipolar: one process that branches shortly after leaving the cell body (retina) i. Pseudounipolar neurons: dendric portion extending away from the CNS and its axon portion projecting into the CNS (typical sensory neurons in cranial and spinal nerves) ii. Bipolar neurons: two distinct process arising from the cell body ( rod and cone cells of retina) iii. Multipolar neurons: most common, multiple dendrites and a single axon (motor neurons) iv. Structural Classification of Neurons [ Unipolar, Pseudounipolar, Bipolar, and Multipolar] b. Sensory: afferent, mostly pseudounipolar, carry impulses from peripheral sensory receptors to the CNS i. Association: efferent, multipolar, transmit impulses from neuron to neuron (sensory to motor), r/t cognitive function ii.
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