Opportunity Lecture.pdf

Opportunity Lecture.pdf - Lecture Opportunity Lecture...

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Lecture: Opportunity 1 Lecture Framing Questions: 1. What motivated European aristocrats, the middle class, and indentured servants to settle in America? 2. How are their intentions reflected in the artifacts they left behind? Jamestown: American s First Permanent Settlement In June, 1606, England’s King James I granted a charter to the Virgi nia Company of London to establish an English settlement in the Chesapeake region of North America. In December of that year, 104 men and boys set sail for the New World with instructions not only to establish a settlement, but also to find gold and to find a water route to Asia. On May 14, 1607, the expedition landed on the banks of the James River, and within a month, had built a fort. Within the next year, the colony was resupplied twice with men and provisions from England. The table below identifies the occupations of the settlers who arrived in Jamestown, during its first year: Table 1: Occupations of Jamestown settlers, Year 1 Occupation Original First Supply Second Supply Total Year 1 Apothecaries 1 2 2 Barber 1 1 Blacksmith 1 1 2 Boys 4 2 6 Bricklayers 2 2 Carpenters 6 6 Cooper 2 1 1 Counsel 3 6 1 2 9 Drum 4 1 1 Fuller 5 1 1 Gentlemen 29 28 26 83 Gunner 1 1 Laborers (Unskilled) 12 21 11 34 Mason 1 1 Perfumer 1 1 Preacher 1 1 Refiners 6 4 4 Sailor 1 1 Surgeon 1 1 2 Tailors 1 6 7 Tobacco Pipe-maker 1 1 Tradesmen 14 14 Total 67 71 53 191 1 Druggists or pharmacists 2 A person whose makes or repairs casks and barrels 3 Lawyers / legal advisors who comprised the leadership of the colony 4 A fashionable person 5 A seamstress 6 Persons who job it is to purify metals
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Lecture: Opportunity 2 Gentlemen comprised the largest percentage of Jamestown Year 1 settlers. A gentleman was a male member of the upper-middle class. He was considered lesser nobility, which entitled him to display a coat of arms. Gentlemen settlers could afford and purchased shares in the Virginia Company. He might hire laborers and pay their passage to the New World in hopes of building an estate in the new settlement. Aristocrats Members of the aristocracy settled in the colonies Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas, especially as a way to maintain a status in danger of decline due to European inheritance traditions. Traditionally, the practices of entail (the legal ability to restrict control of land to the biological descendants of the original owner) and primogeniture (the right of the eldest son to inherit his father's entire estate) denied the younger sons of the aristocracy inheritance upon their fathers deaths. These practices were used to keep estates intact and to perpetuate the aristocratic standing of the family name. Since land was scare (especially in England), since families and individuals had little means of purchasing new lands, and since true wealth and status was tied to ownership of land, younger sons were left unable to maintain their positions in society. Oftentimes, they turned to the clergy or to the military or married the daughters of wealthy middle-class families.
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  • Spring '16

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