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Pharmacology NURS 7550 Exam 2 Study Guide.docx

Pharmacology NURS 7550 Exam 2 Study Guide.docx - [Nervous...

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[Nervous System Drugs] 1. Branch of the peripheral nervous system responsible for involuntary actions i. Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord ii. Peripheral Nervous System: Everything else 1. Autonomic nervous system is part of peripheral nervous system b. Parasympathetic: Rest & Digest c. Sympathetic: Fight or Flight i. *** PNS will balance them out in order to maintain homeostasis 2. Fight or Flight “Sympathetic”: The body has sympathy (Running away from a dinosaur) a. Pupils dilate: to see b. Muscles tense: getting ready fight or to run away from the beast c. Bronchi dilate: to get more oxygen to the body to use d. Heart rate increase: so nutrition can get to the cells e. BP rise f. Liver releases glucose: so you have enough energy to run away or to fight g. Digestion slows: fight or run away from the threat you don’t want to vomit or diarrhea h. Sphincters relax i. RESULT: Pupils= Blown, ii. In the ER: you won’t have clean underwear, despite what mom wants 3. Rest and Digest “Parasympathetic”: a. Pupils: Constrict (so you can see your plate) b. Salivate: so you can digest your food c. Bronchi: Not going to need that much oxygen, back to normal d. Secretion: a lot of secretion e. Heart rate, BP: Drop f. GI Tract: Secreation, peristalsis increase , Spincter tone decrease (digest the meal and get rid of it g. Bladder: sphincter tone decrease and detrusor muscle tone increase to eliminate the meal you have just eaten i. Result: Sleepiness (like Thanksgiving!) 4. Neurotransmission a. Nerve cell (Neuron) neve impulse went down through Axon Gap: Synapse Jump Dendrites Next Cell (Neuron) b. Bulb of the Pre-synaptic Neuron: Cavity with different neurotransmitters node is hit with the impulse at the end of the axon the neurotransmitters release at the synapse travel through the synapse bind with the receptors post synaptic neuron receptors continue the impulse in the following neuron 5. Peripheral Nervous System Neurotransmission a. Mainly has two transmitters it uses (depends on SNS or PNS) i. Autonomic nervous system: it has bulbs that branch off (it is located differently) a. Controls those movements that is involuntary b. Impulse from the pre ganglion neuron post-ganglion neuron Smooth muscles c. Ganglia: Place where neurotransmitters are kept 2. Sympathetic (bulbs: located immediately off the spinal cord)
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3. Parasympathetic (bulbs: closer to the end of the nervous conduction point [near target organ]) ii. Somatic nervous system: controls those movements that is voluntary (direct impulse from the spinal cord to skeletal muscle) 1. It uses the same neurotransmitters that is used in parasympathetic but uses it in a different way 1 Neurotransmitter a Sympathetic i Main neurotransmitter: Norepinephrine (NE) 1 Sounds like Epinephrine (adrenaline)  fight or flight part of adrenaline rush b Parasympathetic i Acetylcholine (ACh) 1 Act on 2 Types of Receptors a Nicotinic Receptors: pre-ganglion b Muscarinic Receptors: target (post ganglion) closer to the organ b
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