IND 2 FINAL MATRIX.docx - Final Blueprint Individual 2 Fall...

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Final Blueprint Individual 2 Fall 2016 Topic Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus) 3 questions 1. Etiology Transmitted via contact with body secretions, primarily oropharyngeal secretions (sneezing, coughing, etc.) B cells spread the infection throughout the liver, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes Particularly frequent in young adults Signs/Symptoms: fatigue, fever, headache, pharyngitis, petechiae, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly 2. Complications Lymphocytic meningitis Encephalitis Encephalomyelitis Polyneuritis Guillain-Barre Syndrome – can lead to respiratory paralysis and death Associated with the development of Hodgkin’s lymphoma Best means of preventing complications is exposure to the virus early in life, since the syndrome in children in children is milder than the disease in adults Pheochromocytoma – p. 1215 2 questions A condition caused by a tumor in the adrenal medulla causing excess in the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine Most dangerous immediate effect → severe hypertension → hypertensive encephalopathy, diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, and death 1. Clinical manifestations Severe, episodic hypertension Severe, pounding headache Tachycardia with palpitations Profuse sweating Unexplained abdominal or chest pain Attacks provoked by many medications and can last from a few minutes to several hours 2. Diagnostics 24-hour urine collection – measurement of urinary fractionated metanephrines (catecholamine metabolites), fractioned catecholamines, and creatinine → will reveal elevated levels CT Scan/MRI – to diagnose tumors Tuberculosis – p. 528 4 questions An infectious disease usually involving the lungs; primary cause of death worldwide from a potentially curable infectious disease; leading cause of death in patients with HIV People at risk – homeless, residents in inner-city neighborhoods, foreign-born people, those living/working in institutions (prison, hospital, shelters), IV injecting drug users, people at poverty level, those with poos access to healthcare Factors that influence likelihood of transmission: o Number of organisms expelled into the air o Concentration of organisms (small spaces with limited ventilation) o Length of time of exposure o Immune system of the exposed person Patient suspected of having TB should be placed on airborne isolation (single occupancy room with negative pressure), receive medical workup (chest x-ray, sputum smear and culture, and receive drug therapy Patient Teaching: o Cover mouth anytime patient sneezes, coughs, expels sputum, and dispose of tissue o HAND HYGIENE! o Minimize prolonged visitation 1. Treatment Active TB Drug Therapy – initial 2-month phase followed by continuous phase o Isoniazid (INH) SE: hepatitis, asymptomatic elevation of AST, ALT Alcohol may increase hepatotoxicity of the drug; instruct patient to avoid alcohol drinking during treatment
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