Learning Objectives.docx

Learning Objectives.docx - Lecture1 LearningObjectives o...

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Learning Objectives Lecture 1 Define biochemistry as a discipline o Description of structure, organization, and function of life at the molecular level  o Subdivisions Structural Biology: What are organisms made of? Metabolism: How to organisms acquire and use energy? Molecular Genetics: How does an organism maintain its identity across  generations? Know examples for relevance of biochemistry for human society  o Medicine/Disease – Anemia o Pharmacology/Toxicology – Cancer Chemotherapy  o Nutrition – Vitamins  o Agriculture – Herbicides and Pesticides  o Production of Chemicals – Catalysts and Enzymes List 4 most abundant elements for biological molecules o C, H, N, O  List 4 major types of macromolecules and describe fundamental and structural  characteristics and function o Amino Acids Amino group (NH3+) and carboxylic acid group (COO-) 20 different types of amino acids Proteins (polymers) Most structurally diverse and variable, most versatile Mediate chemical reactions & provide structural support  o Carbohydrates  Monosaccharides: (CH2O) n, n> Recognized by –OH groups and ring structure  Polysaccharides (polymers)  Contain one or a few different monosaccharide residues  o Mostly homogenous polymers Limits genetic info carrying ability and ability to adopt a large  variety of shapes and mediating chemical rxns  Form essential cell functions by serving as fuel-storage molecules and  providing structural support  Monosaccharide = fuel for all cells Polysaccharide = long-term storage  o Glucose residues linked by glycosidic bonds Glucose molecules bind cellulose = helps make walls rigid o Lipids Don’t polymerize Diverse Poorly soluble in water (bulk is hydrocarbon like) 
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Polar head and fatty acid tails Provide insulation, energy, and cholesterol (structure) o Nucleotides Has:  Five-carbon sugar Nitrogen-containing ring One or more phosphate groups (mono, di, tri)  Nucleic Acid (polymer)  Each nucleic acid is made from 4 nucleotides  Less variable than aa’s  Tend to have more regular structures than proteins Do not bend of fold  Supports their primary role as carriers of genetic info (contained in  nucleotide residues rather than 3D shape)   Explain relationship between residues, monomers, and polymers o Monomers are biomolecules that can be joined together to form a polymer o Polymers are made up of monomers (residues)  Residues (monomers that become part of a polymer chemical linkage) o Directionality (has a beginning and an end)
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  • Spring '14
  • FrederickS.Gimble

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