098473.pdf - flit 3 473%itb as ll 13 15 ~ Egg i(50 The...

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Unformatted text preview: flit? 3 473 %%itb% as: ll. 13. 15. ~ Egg?! i (50%) . The most abundant cation in extracellular fluid is: (a) Na; (b) K; (0) Mg; (d) Ca The mineral associated with the glucose tolerance factor is (a) Cr; (b) Mn; (c) Mo; ((1) Se The most abundant anion in intracellular fluid is (a) Chloride; (0) Hydrogen phosphate; (b) Bicarbonate; (d) Sulfate The non-metal nutrient associated with Keshan disease;which is characterized by cardiomyopathy, is (a) Cr; 0)) Se; (0) Cl; (d) P The ion that is actively secreted by the parietal cells in the gastric gland is (a) Na+g (b) K+; (not; (d) H003" The two minerals, when either one of them is deficient, will result in thyroid hormone deficiency in the body, are (a) Ca & P (b) I & Zn; (c) Se & Zn; (d) I & Se; Bile salts are synthesized from cholesterol in the (a) Hepatocytes; (c) B -cells ; (b) Enterocytes ; (d) Colon Vitamin C acts as an enzyme cofactor by the following mechanisms EXCEPT (a) maintaining iron in ferrous state (b) maintaining copper in cuprous state (0) maintaining vitamin E in reduced form. (d) maintaining folate in reduced form it, a ’a if: 2. 10. 12. 14. 16. E iifikfigtifii—fizfiflzififl ifi'éfitfififi an: at- fizfi / X gig: : sweaters—z rfifinfi’figfiii 436344551 ° The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is: (a) Na; (h) K; (0) Mg; (d) Ca The mineral serving as a cofactor in sulfite oxidase is (a) Cr; (b) Mn; (c) Mo; (d) Se The mineral binding the phosphate groups in ATP in ATP-dependent enzyme reactions is (a) Na; (13) K; (0) Mg; (d) Ca The two minerals associated with the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the cytoplams are (a) Fe & Zn; (d) Zn ‘& Fe (b) Cu & Zn; (0) Mn & Fe; The two trace minerals that induce the synthesis of metallothioncin in the cell are (a) Fe & Zn; (b) Cu & Zn; (0) Mn & Fe; (d) Zn & Fe The hormone primarily responsible for contraction of the gallbladder and release of bile into the duodenum is (a) Gastrin; (b) Secretin; (c) Cholecystokinin; (d) Ghrelin The binding protein that regulates many of the calcium-dependent enzymes is: (a) Calcitonin; (b) Caibidin; (c) Calcitriol; (d) Calmoduiin The mineral that cotransports for absorption of dietary glucose is (a) Na; (1)) K; (c) Mg; (d) Ca 473 flesh i473 fit a = eases Eii#k$%$$fifiiflfli%flfifi . 233521473 445 stag a 17. Menkes disease and Wilson’s disease are genetic disorders related to abnormal metabolism of which mineral? (a) Iron; (b) Copper; (0) Zinc; (d) Selenium 19. The mineral component in hephaestin is (a) Iron; (b) Copper; (c) Zinc; (d) Selenium 21. The protein that carries iron in the plasma is (a) Ceruloplasmin; (b) Transferrin; (c) Transferrin receptor; (d) Hemoglobin 23. flag-fié-éfiifig 3.35 mg/g Hb, fizfliiifi’ié as 13 area—1 assesses 52 ’2: Fr ’ filfii'i'ifizg‘. 9y100mhé§flfi§é¥eifitl dreamers 12 g/lOOmL, reams“): #3 ¥3§~firfi it? yfififi? (21) 400mg (b) 100 mg (0) 10 mg ((1) 15 mg 25. anaerna'rsrsmeawaameat ’ 4H teas DRI gazes: ’ easiestemezr :aamaaaam (21) *1F (b)6—9 {an (0)3-6 rate (601-3 18. Conjugation of bile acids with glycine and taurine improves their ability to (a) ionize and form micelles; (b) undergo enterohepatic recirculation; (c) be excreted in the feces, thus keeping serum cholesterol normal; (d) promote the formation of bile salts. 20. The mineral that its low plasma concentration will stimulate PTH secretion is (a) Na; 03) K; (0)Mg; ((00a 22. The absorption rates of Ca and P aref & , respectively: (a) 30% & 30%; (b) 60% & 60%; (c) 30% & 60%; (d) 60% & 30% 24. messengers » measurements-urns arm (a) 5-10% am 53 0% (c)70% (d)90% aaa flat as I, J l. 2. 3. 10. ll. 12. l3. l4. l5. : 473 Ei§$§k$98$$fizfiffifli¥ifiifilfifi : §$i4b$ are :473 a 5' was: a >:< as. : seats: Fatfifiei’fissi eases ’ islesiflfi'P'FE-Zkfiflcfiéfisi .. ~ 515531251 assassaeaaasaaa1~s.5~1o.1o~15a . arisen”. 2(). 50 - laterals (15%) What is the normal range for fasting serum glucoae levels? a. 10—30 mg/ dL b. 3050 mg/dL c, 60-90 mg/dL d, 100—140 mg/dL Dietary fiber is currently defined as 3" carbohydrates and lignin that are nondigestible by hum an enzymes and are intact and intrinsic in plants. b. carbohydrates that are nondigestible by human enzymes, have been isolated, extracted or manufactured and have been shown to have beneficial physiological effects in humans. 0. crude fiber. d. the same as functional fiber. Functional fiber is currently defined as a. carbohydrates and lignin that are nondigestible by human enzymes and are intact and intrinsic in plants. b. carbohydrates that are nondigestible by human enzymes, have been isolated, extracted or manufactured and have been shown to have beneficial physiological effects in humans. c, all dietary fiber. d_ the same as crude fiber. Hydrocolloids that are secreted at a site of injury on a plant or surround the endosperm of some seeds and that are used as thickening agents. . a. lignin b. cellulose c. pectins d_ gums Trans unsaturated fatty acids are now considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids because they a. are unnatural and only formed during fat processing. b, cause excess blood clotting. c. elevate serum LDL while decreasing HDL. d, were found to cause sudden cardiac arrest in women. Which group of 20~carbon fatty acid derivatives exhibit a range of physiological actions including lowering of blood pressure, diuresis, blood platelet aggregation and effects on the immune system? a. prostaglandins b. linoleic acid c, palmitate d. cholesterol What are two major components implicated in the mechanism of atherogenesis? a. growth factors and HDL b_ enterocytes and endothelial cells c, cells of the immune system and serum lipids d. primarily VLDL and lDL A genetic defect diminishing branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity results in a. phenylketonuria. b, homocysteinuria. c_ cystathioninuria. d, maple syrup urine disease. Which cells lack a metabolic mechanism to convert glucose into energy stores? a. skeletal muscle [3, liver 0. adipose tissue d, RBC’s A protein-sparing shift in metabolism from gluconeogenesis to lipolysis occurs during the a. early fasting state b, fasting state c. starvation state d, fed state In which organ does urea synthesis occur? a. kidney b. spleen c. liver d. pancreas What amino acid plays an important role in controlling toxicity from ammonia released during amino acid catabolism by the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction? a. glutamine b. glycine c. serine d. valine Which vitamin directs cellular differentiation of epithelial cells? a. riboflavin b. vitamin K c. vitamin E d. vitamin A Vitamin K deficiency is most likely due to: a. oxalic acid in food b. achlorhydria c. antibiotic therapy (:1. a high fiber diet Which organs are responsible for regulation of extracellular water osmolarity and volume? a. hypothalamus and kidney b. liver and pancreas c. pancreas and kidney d. spleen and bone marrow 2'. . areas :(10%) "methyl-folate trap" intrinsic factor 1. 2. 3. visual cycle 4. The vitamin K cycle 5. “the sunshine vitamin” R315, @ £33? i 473 @J‘I—ii‘g‘kfiQSfiifiilfi :lrifiifl ii‘fli‘fififi flE = @iiibg Mt. : 473 *5 fizfiéfv E till ~ fiat: itfi ee = 1.13" Ht fit??? renin—angiotensin system it fit it? fit #1 1%} 385 ’ HE antiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)=E~i£i %'J $ ’1‘ WAGE") #33232? SE. wild-type vl~ S. Haitian? 1 (5%) Table 1. Food intake in). water intake mi}. fecal fat, and body A B 20 composition of Act?” and ACE'" mice 30 Appetite and body St 1: h 15 composition ACE’h ACE"- E g n, g (n = M) 3.5 = 0.2 3.0 1 0.2 g 20 E ill * Fl.gfllody weight. g (n = H) 0.11 I 0.01 0.13 1' 0.01 3 >1 WI, ml (n = 143 4.2 1 0.2 9.8 I (15* in ,8 Fat in dry fees. 96 (n = I) 4.7 2 0.2 4.9 i 0.1 .8 "J m 5 Digestablllty. 5“: (n = 7) 94.! I 0.3 94.5 t 0.2 9: Body fat. :1 (a = 1) 5.5 x 0.7 2.3 t 02* Fat-free mass. 9 (n = 1'} 26.4 r 0.6 24.9 1- 1.0 Bone density, 91cm2 (:1 a 7) 0.070 2 0.001 0.076 x 0.001 I] ' 0 . Valuas are mean 3 SEM. ', .P < 0.05 (ACE'r' vs. ACE”). WIMWPE ACE "'L w'ld‘l'Pe ACE "I" A FCd-stflm Fusted Table 3. Fold-Increase (Fl) In expression of genes Involved in a“ "0 * lipid matabolismin me liven eucrr- Wampum with E 0'3 Ace” mice - 0.5 t t g (IA .‘ Role in fat E 0 2 Gene Fl metabolism In . E 0'0 wild-type ACE 4'- wiid‘type ACE. .1. LIPDPlDtBin Ilpaie 4.4* Lipolysls PPARycoactivator—i 23* Induction of fat B 5* 0.16 metabolism E“ ELI 2 * Carnltine palmltoyl transferase 23* Fatty acid oxidation g on“ 1. Long chain acylcoA dehydrogenase 2.1' Fatty acid oxidation 5 1 Hormone sensitive lipase 1.6 Lipolysis g "‘0‘ Fatty acid synthase Li) Fat storage “‘ om Wild-type ACE J» Wildvtypc ACE. 4- t, P < 0.05 {ACE’F vs. ACE”). en: 1)ACE tbéiifiiifi’fififiéfii’iiififiafl? (2%) 2) ekACEll‘fiéfifiifiuflfififitii§tb? (2%) 3) renin—‘angiotensin system ftfifiifiittfififig‘ifi ? fifil‘tfl fl JEWéE'JW ? (2%) 4) titACE eldefiemstht : esweeseeemeeste? iffiiféfii‘imt-‘Xttfitttflzw 2. fififififiififififlfifififilfiéfififiewflfififififiwEEJ?‘ 1 Ekfifififlfififififié‘fiéfifi fif$fiéfifiibfi€ijét§ $311" ’ fitfififlétfia’fihflEK-‘z $$1Eiiéfili¢%fifiifi£30 mg fi-caroteneafv25,000 IUfrEii'A . 394$é§ffififiiéflifi ’ 5P4i$21tffl E $11k. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Triai itifitl: ' ’éfitsififitttéfi'iitu'Ffl I (8%) at -— Active treatment — Placebo Aetlve treatment Cardiovascular causes ..- All causes Cumulative incidence 0! Lung Cancer (5%) Cumulative Mortality (36) O -‘ l't} U A Lil m N {I ED 0 0 12 24 36 4B 60 72 D 1 2 24 36 48 60 72 Months after Randomization Figure 1. Kapian—Meior Curves of the Cumulative incidence of Lung Cancer among Participants Receiving Active Treatment and Those Receiving Placebo. Data are shown only through 5% years of follow-up because of the smelt numbers of participants beyond that time. Months after Randomization Figure 2. Kaplen—Maiar Curves of the Cumulative Incidence at Death from All Causes and Confirmed Cardiovascular Causes among Participants Receiving Active Treatment and Those Re- ceiving Placebo. Data are shown only through 53/; years at follow-up because 0' the small numbers of participants beyond that time. $51 1) {TEE rplacebctJ ? (2%) 2) Figure tutuFigurez Q342$fifitfifiéhfiéfi$éfifl2w 3) ififitbfifimfltflm’r ' $£i§aifi$fi$i¥i¢b§+§ ? (2%) 4) ififlfi‘fifii‘fifigzififi‘fiéfiifi-Efitéfitfiiéfifié‘ti‘s?(1°/o) Wfififififilflfififi“? (1%) #13365 233% 1 473 @iifik§=98$$fiififfii$€ iifififififi fie : igii/Ibfi mama 3. fiifigfififilfiksfllipoprotein iipasefikifia’?‘ ' fiifiififlfli’téfifikiiE/éwoo mgfifififizq’ifififl’lb ’ 4:01:51 1 (9%) alphllml IIIIIIIIIHI Ilmmuml Q I 12 IQ in 24 4 a 12 III 20 2! ‘I'Inlo (II) Tim. (M FIG I. Plum mine-opium] (IlphllmL) Ind rwcaphnol (ml! FIG 1 Hum: a-loooptwml (IlphalmL) and 14mphuulunmmn! mucoucuumimu mar mm on final: dose (moo mm] of mL) muntmions nfiur inimion of: singqulnq; (1000 mg mp qr 7513135 1) 33%.? E JEWF/Ufizifiéfiflfi4bé%é§fi1§?(4%) WFfiflifiE—ififl (1%)? 2) lipoprotein lipase iffifiifi? E éH'JFfl FEW flfifi: ‘? (2%) 3) FIG 1 53?. FIG 2 ' “El‘flffilfé lipoprotein lipase mafiflma‘: ‘? (1%) fiufié’fidfl’r ? (1%} fifi'fififiifixfim ...
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