Lecture 03 2B03 2017.pptx - Lecture 3 Nucleotides and...

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Lecture 3 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Part II 1
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Hydrolysis of Nucleic Acids a chemical reaction where is there is addition of a H20 molecule 2'-OH groups in RNA make RNA more susceptible to hydrolysis – RNA can break down on itself; enzymes called RNases speed the process up DNA, lacking 2'-OH, is more stable – Spontaneous hydrolysis is extremely slow; enzymes called DNases are required to break it down This makes sense - the genetic material must be more stable The half-life of DNA is ~500-5,000 years dependent on condition RNA is designed to be used and then broken down DNA is 100,000 times more stable than RNA and 1,000 times more stable than proteins 2
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Hydrolysis of RNA 3 3’ 2’ 5’
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4 Random hydrolysis of the cyclic phosphodiester intermediate gives a mixture of 2'- and 3'-nucleoside monophosphate products. Hydrolysis of RNA
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Hydrolysis of DNA There are two ways to hydrolyze DNA: cleaving phosphoester at (a) produces a 5'-phosphate and cleaving at (b) yields 3'- phosphate 5 3’ 5’
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DNA structure 6 Right-twist closes the gaps between base pairs to 0.34 nm in B-DNA, resulting in a right-handed helix and compactness The dominant structural form of DNA is the B conformation , simplified as B- DNA
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Sugar-phosphate backbone 7 In reality, the torsion angles of the 6 bonds are subject to a variety of constrains that greatly restriction their freedom of rotation – this means that DNA has a somewhat flexible structure, yet still rigid
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