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cheat sheet.docx - Theories of intelligence Like any...

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Theories of intelligence Like any concept in psychology one of the principal challenges is defining intelligence In the face of this challenge there are many working definitions of intelligence proposed Defining Intelligence Binet o  “ the tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end, and the power of autocriticism” Spearman o  The ability to educe either relations or correlates Gardner o  The ability “to resolve genuine problems or difficulties as they are encountered” Two Early Principles Age differentiation o  Mental age – knowledge and task ability of a specific age group General mental ability o  intelligence may be composed of several individual factors, but o  Binet was interested in measuring the sum total of them all o  Considered general intelligence General Mental Ability First proposed by Galton Also independently proposed by Charles Spearman o Intelligence consists of one general factor (g) plus a large number of specific factors Spearman’s g g acts like a single general factor the higher some scores on g the higher they are on the specific intelligences Approximately 50% of the variance in a set of diverse mental tests is represented by the g factor o  Spearman developed factor analysis because he noticed that most, seemingly unrelated, abilities were positively correlated; this is known as positive manifold Multiple Intelligences  By Howard Gardener  Eight different kinds of intelligence GF-GC  Fluid intelligence  Crystalized intelligence Multiple Intelligences Linguisticm, Logical-mathematical, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Naturalistic Fluid Vs Crystalized Fluid intelligence (gf) o Those abilities that allow us to reason, think, and acquire new knowledge o Allows us to learn new things Crystallized intelligence (gc) o Knowledge and understanding that we have acquired o  “combined wisdom” Binet’s History 1905: Test began with a unitary g model, one intelligence, age scale 1908: Age scale continued 1916: Test came to the US 1937: Tested in 11 states with a larger standardized sample 1960: Both forms combined to produce the Standard Binet L-M 1986: SB Intelligence Scale – 4th edition 2003: SB Intelligence Scale – 5th edition
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IQ 1 st Calculation
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