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2C - GENETICS - Meiosis Lesson - Disorders.pdf

2C - GENETICS - Meiosis Lesson - Disorders.pdf - Meiosis...

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2C ­ GENETICS ­ Meiosis Lesson ­ Disorders 1 Fertilization: egg and sperm unite to form a diploid cell (the tail of sperm disintegrates after chromosomes are delivered) egg (n) + sperm (n) = zygote (2n) Meiosis and Reproduction Sex chromosomes = the chromosomes involved in determining gender; the 23rd pair Autosomes = the chromosomes not involved in determining gender; pairs 1 through 22 When errors occur in meiosis we can get the wrong number of chromosomes in a cell. a missing chromosome an extra chromosome Meiosis Homologous pairs of chromosomes separate & move toward opposite poles of the cell. Disjunction: the separation of chromosomes during meiosis. Nondisjunction: the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly
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2C ­ GENETICS ­ Meiosis Lesson ­ Disorders 2 Errors in Meiosis In mitosis or meiosis, there can be an error in the processes that results in the change in the number of chromosomes that the daughter cells receive. There are two types of this error condition: Monosomy = having only one copy of a chromosome when you should have a pair.
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