10 - GENETICS Sex Linked 2.pdf

10 - GENETICS Sex Linked 2.pdf - SexLinked"X"LinkedGenetics...

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1 Autosomes = the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes. Each member of an autosome pair (in diploid organisms) is of similar length and in the genes it carries. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes ("X" and "Y") in the nuclei. karyotype = picture of the set of chromosomes for an individual Sex Linked / "X" Linked Genetics Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
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2 Sex Linked / "X" Linked Genetics Sex/Gender chromosomes = chromosomes that determine the gender of an organism. In humans, females have two X chromosomes (genotype = XX ). In humans, males have one X and one Y chromosome (genotype = XY ). The "X" chromosomes is the larger chromosome. The "Y" chromosome is the smaller chromosome. The X chromosome carries hundreds of genes but only a few of these have anything to do directly with gender . Chromosomal Determination of Sex In other organisms there are different methods of determining the gender of an individual. In some reptiles, the temperature of the eggs as they are forming will trigger the gender of the individuals.
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3 Sex Linked / "X" Linked Genetics Only men inherit Y chromosomes so they are the only ones to inherit Y­linked traits . Both men and women can get the X­linked traits since both inherit X chromosomes. It is the father's gamete ( sperm ) that determines the gender of the offspring. The sperm donates either an X allele or a Y allele while the egg donates an X allele. Gametes are the sex cells (egg or sperm) that carry only one allele . A gamete is a " haploid " ( alleles in singles ) set of genes for an egg or a sperm . X is found in the ovum X or Y is found in the sperm The offspring is either XX or XY
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4 Sex Linked / "X" Linked Genetics Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome are said to be
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