Topic 1_Introduction.pdf - SOC 3383 Social Statistics...

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SOC 3383 Social Statistics ASTATE Online Program Department of Criminology, Sociology, and Geography Topic I Introduction: Prologue and Chapter 1
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Before Proceeding …. n Basic mathematics review q Operations n X i = add the scores n X i 2 = first square the scores and then add the squared scores n ( X i ) 2 = first add the scores and then square the total q Accuracy and rounding off n When and how to round off? n Advisable to round off after you have got as accurate the calculation as possible with the calculator n The convention is to round off after two digits n Try Questions 2, 4 and 5c (page xxvii-xxviii)
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What Is Statistics? n ‘Statistics are a set of mathematical techniques used by social scientists to organize and manipulate data for the purpose of answering questions and testing theories’ (page 2) n Two general and primary classes of statistical techniques q Descriptive - univariate, bivariate, multivariate , data reduction, measures of association q Inferential – generalize , predict findings from a sample to a population
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What is Statistics? (contd.) n In sum, statistical analysis involves methods for q designing and carrying out research studies q describing collected data q making decisions, predictions, or inferences about phenomenon represented by the data n But why study statistics ?
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Why Study Statistics? n To conduct scientific inquiry – to evaluate ideas, testing theory, and discovering the truth. n The above constitute the process of research which basically is an endeavor to understand unknown phenomena based on the existing body of knowledge. n Statistics by providing data related to the specific question under investigation is critical to conducting reliable research. n Statistics are usually relevant for quantitative research projects – projects that usually collect information in form of numerical data. n It may be noted though that statistics is used in research techniques that are not necessarily heavily quantitative.
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Relationship between Theory, Hypothesis, Statistics n Theory is a set of propositions which summarize, organize, and explain a variety of known facts q Proposition is a statement about the relationship between abstract concepts. n Hypotheses is a statement about the relationship between variables q Is logically derived from the theory is much more exact and specific. q A hypothesis becomes a theory when repeated testing and evidence suggests the hypotheses has a strong chance of being correct.
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Relationship between theory, hypothesis, statistics (contd.) n Scientific research process proceeds through mutually interdependent stages and statistical analyses is one of them. n Statistical analyses constitutes collection and interpretation and estimation of quantitative data.
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