Unit 5-Lecture 3.pptx - Unit 5-Immunity Lecture 3-Adaptive...

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Unit 5-Immunity Lecture 3-Adaptive Immunity
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Adaptive immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against specific invading agents. bacteria, toxins, viruses, cat dander, etc. Differs from nonspecific defense mechanisms specificity-recognize self & non-self memory-2nd encounter produces even more vigorous response Systemic-not restricted to the initial site of infection Antigens are substances recognized as foreign by the immune responses. The branch of science that deals with the responses of the body when challenged by antigens is called immunology . 2 Adaptive Immunity
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Antibodies An antibody is a protein that can combine specifically with the antigenic determinant on the antigen that triggered its production.
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Antibody Structure Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains and variable and constant portions. Based on chemistry and structure, antibodies are grouped into five principal classes each with specific biological roles (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE). Table 21.3 summarizes the structures and functions of these five classes of antibodies.
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Antibody Structure Glycoproteins called immunoglobulins 4 polypeptide chains -- 2 heavy & 2 light chains hinged midregion lets assume T or Y shape tips are variable regions -- rest is constant region 5 different classes based on constant region IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE tips form antigen binding sites
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Makes up 75-85% of circulating antibodies Initiates complement reaction Inactivates a wide variety of microbes Bacteria, viruses, etc Only class that may cross the placenta -Rh is IgG Can neutralize toxins and enhance complement reaction A monomer IgG
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Present mostly in exocrine secretions including tears, saliva, sweat and milk Present in limited amounts in plasma Helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epithelial cells A dimer IgA
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