Unit 2-Lecture 1.pptx - Unit 2-Blood Lecture 1-Components...

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Unit 2-Blood Lecture 1-Components of Blood
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Blood leaves the heart via arteries that branch repeatedly until they become capillaries Oxygen (O 2 ) and nutrients diffuse across capillary walls and enter tissues Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and wastes move from tissues into the blood Overview of Blood Circulation
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Oxygen-deficient blood leaves the capillaries and flows in veins to the heart This blood flows to the lungs where it releases CO 2 and picks up O 2 The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart Cycle repeats Overview of Blood Circulation
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Blood is the body’s only fluid tissue It is composed of liquid plasma and formed elements Formed elements include: Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs) Leukocytes, or white blood cells (WBCs) Platelets Hematocrit – the percentage of RBCs volume out of the total blood volume Can be determined through centrifugation Composition of Blood
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Components of Whole Blood Figure 17.1
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Blood is a sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste Color varies from scarlet to dark red The pH of blood is 7.35–7.45 Temperature is 38 C Blood accounts for approximately 8% of body weight Average volume: 5–6 L for males, and 4–5 L for females Physical Characteristics and Volume
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Blood performs a number of functions dealing with: Substance distribution Regulation of blood levels of particular substances Body protection Functions of Blood
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Blood transports: Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract Metabolic wastes from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination Hormones from endocrine glands to target organs Distribution
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Blood maintains: Appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat Normal pH in body tissues using buffer systems Adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system Regulation
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Blood prevents blood loss by: Activating plasma proteins and platelets Initiating clot formation when a vessel is broken Blood prevents infection by: Synthesizing and utilizing antibodies Activating complement proteins Activating WBCs to defend the body against foreign invaders Protection
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Blood plasma contains over 100 solutes, including: Proteins – albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, and others Lactic acid, urea, creatinine Organic nutrients – glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids Electrolytes – sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate Respiratory gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide Blood Plasma
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Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets make up the formed elements Only WBCs are complete cells RBCs have no nuclei or organelles, and platelets are just cell fragments Most formed elements survive in the bloodstream for only a few days Most blood cells do not divide but are renewed by cells in bone marrow Formed Elements
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Biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles Filled with hemoglobin (Hb), a protein that functions in gas transport
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