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us hist sem 2 - 4.2.1​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​...

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Unformatted text preview: 4.2.1​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​ ​2 - Stores​ ​have​ ​sales​ ​to​ ​draw​ ​customers​ ​into​ ​the​ ​store​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​other​ ​things​ ​that​ ​are​ ​not​ ​on sale,​ ​to​ ​beat​ ​competition,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​get​ ​rid​ ​of​ ​old​ ​merchandise​ ​quickly​ ​to​ ​get​ ​new merchandise​ ​in​ ​. The​ ​development​ ​of​ ​the​ ​microprocessor - Before​ ​the​ ​microprocessor,​ ​computers​ ​could​ ​do​ ​little​ ​more​ ​than​ ​very​ ​basic​ ​calculations. The​ ​data-collecting​ ​power​ ​and​ ​speed​ ​of​ ​microprocessors​ ​provide​ ​information​ ​that​ ​allows stores​ ​to​ ​make​ ​smarter​ ​decisions​ ​about​ ​selling​ ​goods. - Microprocessor​ ​:​ ​The​ ​area​ ​in​ ​a​ ​computer​ ​that​ ​holds​ ​most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​computer's functions​ ​and​ ​programs.​ ​led​ ​to​ ​the​ ​modern​ ​computer. Who​ ​Owns​ ​the​ ​Rights? - - - Napster,​ ​an​ ​Internet​ ​service​ ​started​ ​in​ ​1999,​ ​allowed​ ​users​ ​to​ ​download​ ​music​ ​(.mp3) files​ ​directly​ ​from​ ​other​ ​users'​ ​computers,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​upload​ ​their​ ​own​ ​music.​ ​Napster's​ ​users were​ ​called​ ​"peers." Within​ ​months,​ ​millions​ ​of​ ​Americans​ ​had​ ​signed​ ​up​ ​to​ ​use​ ​this​ ​peer-to-peer​ ​(P2P) network​ ​and​ ​"share"​ ​all​ ​the​ ​music​ ​they​ ​had​ ​with​ ​other​ ​users.​ ​People​ ​who​ ​owned​ ​the copyrights​ ​to​ ​this​ ​music​ ​—​ ​musicians,​ ​songwriters,​ ​and​ ​others​ ​—​ ​were​ ​angry,​ ​because they​ ​were​ ​not​ ​getting​ ​paid​ ​for​ ​the​ ​music​ ​they​ ​created.​ ​Two​ ​years​ ​later,​ ​Napster​ ​was​ ​shut down. Many​ ​people​ ​who​ ​used​ ​Napster​ ​did​ ​not​ ​consider​ ​themselves​ ​thieves.​ ​In​ ​their​ ​view,​ ​they were​ ​simply​ ​making​ ​music​ ​they​ ​loved​ ​and​ ​"owned"​ ​available​ ​to​ ​a​ ​wide​ ​group​ ​of​ ​people. Electronic​ ​Voting - - Elections​ ​are​ ​controlled​ ​by​ ​states,​ ​often​ ​at​ ​the​ ​county​ ​level,​ ​so​ ​different​ ​systems​ ​are used​ ​across​ ​the​ ​country.​ ​Paper​ ​ballots​ ​were​ ​first​ ​counted​ ​by​ ​machine​ ​at​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of the​ ​20th​ ​century.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​1960s,​ ​the​ ​first​ ​computer-read​ ​ballot​ ​systems​ ​were​ ​introduced; these​ ​often​ ​required​ ​voters​ ​to​ ​punch​ ​a​ ​card​ ​or​ ​mark​ ​a​ ​page​ ​with​ ​a​ ​pencil​ ​(like​ ​a​ ​multiple choice​ ​test).​ ​Fully​ ​digital​ ​systems​ ​have​ ​been​ ​created​ ​but​ ​are​ ​in​ ​use​ ​in​ ​only​ ​certain counties,​ ​while​ ​some​ ​places​ ​still​ ​use​ ​the​ ​century-old​ ​mechanical​ ​system. Some​ ​richer​ ​communities​ ​bought​ ​computerized​ ​voting​ ​machines​ ​for​ ​the​ ​2004​ ​election, but​ ​they​ ​led​ ​to​ ​problems.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​2008​ ​presidential​ ​election,​ ​there​ ​was​ ​a​ ​rule​ ​that​ ​all machines​ ​had​ ​to​ ​have​ ​a​ ​paper​ ​record​ ​as​ ​backup.​ ​This​ ​meant​ ​that​ ​precincts​ ​with computer-only​ ​systems​ ​had​ ​to​ ​connect​ ​printers​ ​or​ ​buy​ ​new​ ​machines​ ​(again). BIG​ ​RETAIL - JIT​ ​delivery Direct​ ​shipment​ ​from​ ​warehouses Computerized​ ​inventory​ ​management INDEPENDENT​ ​PROVIDERS - Information​ ​about​ ​their​ ​business​ ​is​ ​more​ ​available - Low​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​internet​ ​publishing Worldwide​ ​access​ ​to​ ​customers​ ​for​ ​specialty​ ​items CONSUMERS - Ability​ ​to​ ​shop​ ​from​ ​home Availability​ ​of​ ​items​ ​from​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world Low​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​items​ ​in​ ​big​ ​box​ ​stores ...
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