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Psych Exam 1 Notes .docx

Psych Exam 1 Notes .docx - Psych Lecture Notes 9.11.17...

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Psych Lecture Notes 9.11.17 Psychology as a Science When are suicide rates the highest in the US? - March-May (spring peak) - Media makes it seem like it would be December (or holidays) - Could possibly be because they are actually with their families, more generosity going around - More in spring because people are coming out of a state of “hibernation” o A lot of energy coming out “The Tender Cut” (Alder & Alder 2010) - 10-year ethnographic study - 150 interview, 40k internet posts - multiple cultures - RESULTS: o Used to cope with negative emotion/anxiety o Common in groups of young adults o Suggest its fairly harmless and can be treated with support groups - What’s wrong with this? o Too small of a study (150) o Internet is not reliable o “We” already know most of this! --- starting in 2002 o Their conclusions about the “harmless nature” of self-injury are harmful Elevated dysfunction interpersonally and occupationally Elevated suicidal behaviors But NSSI looks fairly treatable “Correlation does imply causation” Vaccines do not cause Autism - One study suggested, eventually retracted for being fraudulent Research in Abnormal Psych - Research is the systematic search for facts through use of careful observation and investigations o It is key to accuracy (really important in abnormal psych) - What do Clinical Researchers do? o Try to discover universal laws or principles of ab psych functioning: Search for “nomothetic understanding” General or universal laws or truths
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Clinical Judgement- What is it? - Subjective interpretations (I think, I feel) made by the clinician regarding one of any number of variables: o Diagnosis o Suicide risk level o Proper treatment choice o Prognosis - Such judgements are often based on opinions formulated through years of experience This debate centers around the following questions: - “which is better for making predictions, clinical judgement vs data based results?” o Grove & Meehl – actuarial approach is better o Dawes – found same results Actuarial Data – What is it? - Formula used to predict outcomes based on objective data from prior instances o Results are acquired through empirical studies - To be truly actuarial data must be: o Automatic Same people with same numbers…get same treatment (it is tested through time and research) o Based on empirical relations o Good example: “Moneyball” Movie How to draft/build a baseball team: old time scouts’ vs new data relying research - Why might actuarial data produce better results? o Consistency Diffferent outcomes because: Fatigue Recent experiences Seemingly minor changes in the order that info is provided o Proper weighting Correctly formulated, actuarial formulas provide proper predictive weights for different variable o Clinicians often disregard important info when evaluating bc: Hindsight bias Individuals relying on clinical judgement tend to overestimate the likelihood that they would have been able to predict what already happened Conformation bias
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