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us hist sem 2 - 4.2.3​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​...

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Unformatted text preview: 4.2.3​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​ ​2 - Biodiesel​ ​is​ ​not​ ​a​ ​petroleum​ ​product. Plastic​ ​and​ ​styrofoam​ ​are​ ​made​ ​from​ ​petroleum​ ​by-products. - A​ ​glass​ ​lightbulb​ ​is​ ​not​ ​made​ ​from​ ​petroleum​ ​products. Candles,​ ​crayons,​ ​and​ ​beauty​ ​products​ ​are​ ​all​ ​made​ ​from​ ​petroleum​ ​products.​ ​(​ ​Paraffin wax​ ​is​ ​not​ ​just​ ​a​ ​fuel​ ​.​ ​it​ ​is​ ​found​ ​in​ ​many​ ​household​ ​products​ ​.​ ​) The​ ​oil​ ​reserves​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Arabian​ ​Desert​ ​would​ ​become​ ​one​ ​of​ ​America’s​ ​largest​ ​sources for​ ​oil. OIL​ ​RESERVES - - By​ ​the​ ​1960s,​ ​many​ ​of​ ​the​ ​easily-found​ ​underground​ ​oil​ ​reserves​ ​(pockets​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​under the​ ​ground)​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​were​ ​beginning​ ​to​ ​dry​ ​up.​ ​Americans​ ​used​ ​more​ ​oil​ ​than U.S.​ ​oil​ ​fields​ ​produced.​ ​The​ ​oil​ ​reserves​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Arabian​ ​Desert​ ​would​ ​become​ ​one​ ​of America’s​ ​largest​ ​sources​ ​for​ ​oil. Oil​ ​prices​ ​are​ ​influenced​ ​by​ ​a​ ​balance​ ​between​ ​the​ ​supply​ ​and​ ​the​ ​global​ ​use​ ​of​ ​oil.​ ​As countries​ ​like​ ​India​ ​and​ ​China​ ​demand​ ​more​ ​oil​ ​for​ ​their​ ​developing​ ​economies,​ ​the global​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​oil​ ​goes​ ​up.​ ​The​ ​price​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​also​ ​goes​ ​up​ ​if​ ​production​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​does​ ​not also​ ​rise. CUTTING​ ​BACK​ ​ON​ ​OIL​ ​USE - - Oil​ ​is​ ​bought​ ​and​ ​sold​ ​on​ ​a​ ​global​ ​market.​ ​Nations​ ​that​ ​sell​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​have​ ​the​ ​most influence​ ​over​ ​the​ ​global​ ​price​ ​of​ ​oil.​ ​For​ ​instance,​ ​the​ ​Organization​ ​of​ ​Petroleum Producing​ ​and​ ​Exporting​ ​Countries​ ​(OPEC)​ ​includes​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world's​ ​biggest producers​ ​of​ ​oil,​ ​and​ ​they​ ​can​ ​cause​ ​the​ ​price​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​to​ ​go​ ​up​ ​by​ ​deciding​ ​to​ ​produce​ ​less oil. Because​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​oil​ ​tends​ ​to​ ​go​ ​up​ ​over​ ​time,​ ​and​ ​because​ ​oil​ ​reserves​ ​have​ ​limits, the​ ​price​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​has​ ​steadily​ ​risen​ ​over​ ​time.​ ​New​ ​technologies​ ​such​ ​as​ ​nuclear​ ​fusion may​ ​someday​ ​replace​ ​oil​ ​as​ ​the​ ​world's​ ​main​ ​energy​ ​source,​ ​but​ ​for​ ​now​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​has taken​ ​steps​ ​to​ ​find​ ​new​ ​oil​ ​and​ ​other​ ​energy​ ​reserves​ ​and​ ​to​ ​conserve​ ​oil. U.S.​ ​Oil​ ​Dependence - - - In​ ​1973​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States'​ ​dependence​ ​on​ ​foreign​ ​products​ ​created​ ​a​ ​crisis.​ ​Outraged over​ ​U.S.​ ​military​ ​support​ ​for​ ​Israel,​ ​the​ ​Arab​ ​members​ ​of​ ​OPEC​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​cut​ ​their​ ​oil production​ ​and​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​sell​ ​oil​ ​to​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States. This​ ​action​ ​created​ ​chaos​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States,​ ​which​ ​relied​ ​largely​ ​on​ ​foreign​ ​oil because​ ​America​ ​produced​ ​insufficient​ ​oil​ ​to​ ​meet​ ​its​ ​own​ ​demand.​ ​Oil​ ​prices​ ​jumped 400​ ​percent,​ ​and​ ​American​ ​consumers​ ​were​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​wait​ ​hours​ ​in​ ​long​ ​lines​ ​to​ ​buy gasoline. The​ ​increase​ ​in​ ​oil​ ​prices​ ​led​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​government​ ​to​ ​ration​ ​oil​ ​until​ ​1976.​ ​Perhaps​ ​more importantly,​ ​it​ ​forced​ ​Americans​ ​to​ ​consider​ ​the​ ​potential​ ​costs​ ​of​ ​relying​ ​on​ ​other​ ​parts of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​to​ ​supply​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​with​ ​vital​ ​resources. - OPEC:​ ​Organization​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Petroleum​ ​Exporting​ ​Countries,​ ​formed​ ​in​ ​1960. Twelve​ ​member​ ​nations​ ​making​ ​decisions​ ​together​ ​on​ ​policies​ ​that​ ​would​ ​be​ ​in their​ ​best​ ​interest​ ​for​ ​keeping​ ​the​ ​world's​ ​oil​ ​market​ ​stable. NUCLEAR​ ​POWER An​ ​Energy​ ​Alternative​ ​that​ ​Needs​ ​Careful​ ​Management - - In​ ​1953,​ ​President​ ​Dwight​ ​D.​ ​Eisenhower​ ​gave​ ​a​ ​speech​ ​called​ ​“Atoms​ ​for​ ​Peace,” describing​ ​a​ ​world​ ​brought​ ​together​ ​by​ ​research​ ​into​ ​peaceful​ ​uses​ ​for​ ​nuclear​ ​power. The​ ​next​ ​year,​ ​the​ ​first​ ​nuclear​ ​power​ ​plants​ ​were​ ​built​ ​in​ ​England​ ​and​ ​the​ ​USSR,​ ​and soon​ ​construction​ ​began​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​as​ ​well.​ ​By​ ​2008,​ ​there​ ​were​ ​104​ ​U.S. nuclear​ ​power​ ​plants,​ ​providing​ ​20​ ​percent​ ​of​ ​the​ ​country's​ ​energy​ ​needs. But​ ​nuclear​ ​power​ ​is​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​capture,​ ​and​ ​even​ ​more​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​control.​ ​Nuclear​ ​fission (breaking​ ​apart​ ​atoms)​ ​creates​ ​radioactive​ ​material.​ ​Exposure​ ​to​ ​radiation​ ​can​ ​cause diseases​ ​like​ ​cancer.​ ​There​ ​are​ ​also​ ​difficulties​ ​in​ ​safely​ ​disposing​ ​of​ ​radioactive​ ​waste. THREE​ ​MILE​ ​ISLAND - - - In​ ​1979,​ ​the​ ​nation’s​ ​developing​ ​trust​ ​in​ ​nuclear​ ​power​ ​was​ ​tested​ ​at​ ​Three​ ​Mile​ ​Island​ ​, a​ ​nuclear​ ​plant​ ​in​ ​Pennsylvania.​ ​An​ ​accident​ ​released​ ​radioactive​ ​material​ ​into​ ​the​ ​area. Thousands​ ​of​ ​people​ ​lived​ ​just​ ​miles​ ​away,​ ​and​ ​many​ ​were​ ​ordered​ ​to​ ​move.​ ​But​ ​a​ ​much worse​ ​situation​ ​could​ ​have​ ​resulted​ ​—​ ​and​ ​the​ ​public​ ​knew​ ​it. Use​ ​of​ ​nuclear​ ​energy​ ​remains​ ​a​ ​hotly​ ​debated​ ​issue.​ ​Nuclear​ ​disasters​ ​in​ ​Russia​ ​and​ ​in Japan​ ​released​ ​massive​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​radiation​ ​into​ ​the​ ​air,​ ​which​ ​raised​ ​safety​ ​questions around​ ​the​ ​world.​ ​The​ ​Obama​ ​administration​ ​released​ ​a​ ​statement​ ​saying​ ​it​ ​"continues to​ ​support​ ​the​ ​expansion​ ​of​ ​nuclear​ ​power​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States,​ ​despite​ ​the​ ​crisis​ ​in Japan." Three​ ​Mile​ ​Island:​ ​A​ ​Pennsylvania​ ​power​ ​plant​ ​run​ ​by​ ​nuclear​ ​energy.​ ​In​ ​1979,​ ​an accident​ ​caused​ ​a​ ​partial​ ​meltdown​ ​of​ ​the​ ​nuclear​ ​core.​ ​A​ ​small​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​radioactive gas​ ​was​ ​released.​ ​Strong​ ​public​ ​reaction​ ​and​ ​fear​ ​put​ ​an​ ​end​ ​to​ ​the​ ​further​ ​development of​ ​nuclear​ ​power​ ​plants​ ​in​ ​America. Pros​ ​and​ ​Cons​ ​of​ ​Nuclear​ ​Energy - Since​ ​1952,​ ​there​ ​have​ ​been​ ​at​ ​least​ ​56​ ​significant​ ​accidents​ ​at​ ​nuclear​ ​power​ ​plants​ ​in the​ ​United​ ​States.​ ​There​ ​were​ ​nine​ ​deaths​ ​directly​ ​related​ ​to​ ​these​ ​accidents;​ ​it​ ​is​ ​difficult to​ ​say​ ​how​ ​many​ ​more​ ​deaths​ ​were​ ​caused​ ​indirectly.​ ​There​ ​are​ ​both​ ​pros​ ​and​ ​cons​ ​for nuclear​ ​energy.​ ​While​ ​fuel​ ​costs​ ​are​ ​cheap,​ ​there​ ​are​ ​risks​ ​that​ ​put​ ​people​ ​and​ ​the environment​ ​in​ ​danger. POSITIVES​ ​: - Cost​ ​of​ ​fuel​ ​is​ ​very​ ​low Very​ ​little​ ​air​ ​pollution Fuel​ ​is​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​move,​ ​so​ ​there​ ​is​ ​less​ ​pollution​ ​from​ ​shipping Proper​ ​control​ ​can​ ​ensure​ ​safe​ ​handling NEGATIVES​ ​: - Spent​ ​fuel​ ​is​ ​dangerous​ ​if​ ​handled​ ​incorrectly Cost​ ​to​ ​build​ ​is​ ​very​ ​high Most​ ​plants​ ​can​ ​only​ ​operate​ ​for​ ​30​ ​–​ ​40​ ​years. Meltdowns​ ​can​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​catastrophic​ ​release​ ​of​ ​radiation​ ​and​ ​environmental​ ​issues GREEN​ ​ENERGY - Finding​ ​sustainable​ ​energy​ ​sources​ ​has​ ​led​ ​to​ ​great​ ​advances​ ​in​ ​"green"​ ​energy.​ ​Green energy​ ​sources​ ​do​ ​not​ ​require​ ​burning​ ​materials,​ ​so​ ​they​ ​release​ ​no​ ​pollution​ ​into​ ​the​ ​air. WIND - Wind​ ​power​ ​has​ ​been​ ​used​ ​for​ ​centuries.​ ​Turning​ ​wind​ ​into​ ​a​ ​commercial​ ​electricity source​ ​requires​ ​wind​ ​turbines​ ​large​ ​enough​ ​to​ ​catch​ ​strong,​ ​constant​ ​winds.​ ​Because these​ ​enormous​ ​structures​ ​can​ ​be​ ​seen​ ​for​ ​miles,​ ​many​ ​communities​ ​do​ ​not​ ​want​ ​them nearby.​ ​However,​ ​wind​ ​“farms”​ ​have​ ​grown​ ​up​ ​in​ ​many​ ​areas​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States. Hydroelectric​ ​power - Many​ ​rivers​ ​are​ ​used​ ​to​ ​turn​ ​hydroelectric​ ​turbines.​ ​Though​ ​hydroelectric​ ​power​ ​provides more​ ​energy​ ​than​ ​any​ ​other​ ​green​ ​source,​ ​hydroelectric​ ​dams​ ​block​ ​shipping​ ​and​ ​and the​ ​movement​ ​of​ ​animal​ ​life.​ ​This​ ​means​ ​they​ ​have​ ​both​ ​a​ ​commercial​ ​and environmental​ ​effect. Solar - The​ ​sun​ ​provides​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​energy,​ ​but​ ​using​ ​it​ ​as​ ​a​ ​power​ ​source​ ​has​ ​been​ ​a​ ​struggle. Solar​ ​energy​ ​can​ ​be​ ​turned​ ​into​ ​electricity,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​equipment​ ​is​ ​expensive​ ​and​ ​requires a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​maintenance.​ ​Solar​ ​technology​ ​is​ ​improving,​ ​but​ ​most​ ​large-scale​ ​solar​ ​projects involve​ ​heating​ ​water​ ​and​ ​are​ ​usually​ ​limited​ ​to​ ​desert​ ​areas.​ ​Also,​ ​since​ ​solar​ ​plants only​ ​operate​ ​during​ ​the​ ​day,​ ​a​ ​back-up​ ​system​ ​must​ ​be​ ​used​ ​at​ ​night. Hummers​ ​and​ ​Hybrids - The​ ​1990s​ ​were​ ​a​ ​time​ ​of​ ​great​ ​wealth.​ ​The​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Cold​ ​War​ ​had​ ​put​ ​America​ ​as​ ​the leading​ ​military​ ​and​ ​economic​ ​power,​ ​and​ ​business​ ​was​ ​booming.​ ​Oil​ ​prices​ ​had dropped​ ​since​ ​the​ ​late​ ​1970s,​ ​but,​ ​Americans​ ​were​ ​still​ ​spending​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​on​ ​oil​ ​because they​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​drive​ ​large​ ​sport​ ​utility​ ​vehicles,​ ​or​ ​SUVs.​ ​It​ ​was​ ​not​ ​the​ ​first​ ​time Americans​ ​had​ ​used​ ​their​ ​cars​ ​as​ ​status​ ​symbols,​ ​and​ ​many​ ​would​ ​be​ ​sorry​ ​they​ ​bought them​ ​when​ ​the​ ​economy​ ​stopped​ ​growing. - Cold​ ​War​ ​:​ ​The​ ​political​ ​conflict​ ​and​ ​military​ ​tension​ ​between​ ​the​ ​Soviet​ ​Union and​ ​the​ ​Western​ ​powers,​ ​especially​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States.​ ​It​ ​was​ ​called​ ​the​ ​"Cold War"​ ​because​ ​actual​ ​war​ ​between​ ​the​ ​two​ ​countries​ ​never​ ​broke​ ​out.​ ​It​ ​lasted from​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​World​ ​War​ ​II​ ​until​ ​the​ ​government​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Soviet​ ​Union​ ​fell​ ​apart​ ​in 1991. NEED​ ​FOR​ ​OIL - - - The​ ​September​ ​11,​ ​2001​ ​terrorist​ ​attacks​ ​that​ ​destroyed​ ​New​ ​York’s​ ​World​ ​Trade Center,​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Pentagon,​ ​and​ ​led​ ​to​ ​the​ ​crash​ ​of​ ​United​ ​Flight​ ​93,​ ​changed​ ​American foreign​ ​and​ ​military​ ​policy. The​ ​economic​ ​impact​ ​of​ ​the​ ​attacks​ ​was​ ​immediately​ ​apparent.​ ​The​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​went​ ​up fast​ ​and​ ​continued​ ​to​ ​climb,​ ​particularly​ ​after​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​attacked​ ​Iraq​ ​in​ ​2003. Americans​ ​were​ ​concerned​ ​about​ ​their​ ​safety,​ ​but​ ​also​ ​about​ ​the​ ​rising​ ​price​ ​of​ ​oil. “Here​ ​we​ ​have​ ​a​ ​serious​ ​problem:​ ​America​ ​is​ ​addicted​ ​to​ ​oil,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​often​ ​imported from​ ​unstable​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world,”​ ​President​ ​George​ ​W.​ ​Bush​ ​said.​ ​He​ ​responded​ ​by looking​ ​for​ ​an​ ​end​ ​to​ ​this​ ​need​ ​for​ ​oil.​ ​Bush’s​ ​2006​ ​State​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Union​ ​address​ ​described plans​ ​for​ ​both​ ​research​ ​in​ ​and​ ​government​ ​aid​ ​for​ ​alternative​ ​energy​ ​solutions.​ ​He​ ​talked about​ ​wind​ ​and​ ​solar​ ​energy​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​“clean​ ​coal.”​ ​This​ ​was​ ​a​ ​big​ ​change​ ​for​ ​a president​ ​who​ ​had​ ​worked​ ​for​ ​an​ ​oil​ ​company​ ​before​ ​becoming​ ​president. Exxon-Valdez - On​ ​March​ ​24,​ ​1989,​ ​the​ ​Exxon-Valdez,​ ​an​ ​enormous​ ​oil​ ​tanker,​ ​ran​ ​aground​ ​on​ ​a​ ​reef​ ​in Prince​ ​William​ ​Sound,​ ​Alaska,​ ​dumping​ ​nearly​ ​eleven​ ​million​ ​gallons​ ​of​ ​crude​ ​oil​ ​into​ ​the sound.​ ​The​ ​oil​ ​covered​ ​the​ ​coastline​ ​of​ ​a​ ​national​ ​forest,​ ​devastating​ ​wildlife.​ ​Though​ ​it was​ ​not​ ​the​ ​largest​ ​oil-related​ ​disaster​ ​in​ ​American​ ​history,​ ​images​ ​of​ ​affected​ ​wildlife helped​ ​make​ ​it​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​publicized​ ​events​ ​in​ ​ihe​ ​history​ ​of​ ​the​ ​oil​ ​industry. Deepwater​ ​Horizon - On​ ​April​ ​20,​ ​2010,​ ​there​ ​was​ ​an​ ​explosion​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Deepwater​ ​Horizon​ ​oil​ ​rig,​ ​owned​ ​by British​ ​Petroleum.​ ​The​ ​resulting​ ​spill​ ​threatened​ ​the​ ​diverse​ ​ecosystem​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Gulf​ ​of Mexico,​ ​threatening​ ​commercial​ ​fishing​ ​throughout​ ​the​ ​states​ ​that​ ​border​ ​it,​ ​and temporarily​ ​halting​ ​oil​ ​production​ ​in​ ​the​ ​region,​ ​crucial​ ​for​ ​many​ ​of​ ​these​ ​states' economies.​ ​The​ ​spill​ ​revealed​ ​the​ ​dangers​ ​of​ ​offshore​ ​drilling,​ ​a​ ​controversial environmental​ ​issue,​ ​and​ ​led​ ​Americans​ ​to​ ​question​ ​whether​ ​oil​ ​companies​ ​should​ ​be allowed​ ​to​ ​manage​ ​such​ ​hazardous​ ​operations ...
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