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us hist sem 2 - 4.1.3​ ​US.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​...

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Unformatted text preview: 4.1.3​ ​US.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​ ​2 - - How​ ​do​ ​you​ ​think​ ​these​ ​media​ ​changes​ ​affected​ ​the​ ​way​ ​viewers​ ​got​ ​information? - People​ ​had​ ​more​ ​choices​ ​than​ ​ever​ ​before.​ ​At​ ​one​ ​time,​ ​there​ ​were​ ​only​ ​a handful​ ​of​ ​channels​ ​to​ ​view,​ ​limiting​ ​one's​ ​choices.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​media​ ​age,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a channel​ ​for​ ​almost​ ​every​ ​interest.​ ​Viewers​ ​sought​ ​out​ ​programming​ ​that​ ​targeted their​ ​interests,​ ​age,​ ​and​ ​background. How​ ​much​ ​do​ ​you​ ​and​ ​your​ ​friends​ ​talk​ ​about​ ​what​ ​you​ ​saw​ ​in​ ​the​ ​media​ ​the​ ​prior​ ​day​ ​or evening?​ ​Do​ ​you​ ​usually​ ​talk​ ​about​ ​TV​ ​shows​ ​or​ ​other​ ​types​ ​of​ ​media? - TV​ ​has​ ​much​ ​more​ ​competition​ ​than​ ​it​ ​used​ ​to​ ​and​ ​is​ ​no​ ​longer​ ​Americans' common​ ​reference​ ​point. BUSH - - President​ ​George​ ​H.​ ​W.​ ​Bush​ ​older​ ​and​ ​more​ ​conservative​ ​than​ ​Clinton,​ ​used​ ​traditional means​ ​to​ ​reach​ ​older,​ ​more​ ​traditional​ ​voters.​ ​He​ ​appeared​ ​on​ ​traditional Sunday-morning​ ​news​ ​programs​ ​like​ ​Meet​ ​the​ ​Press​ ​and​ ​aired​ ​campaign​ ​commercials on​ ​the​ ​major​ ​networks. George​ ​H.​ ​W.​ ​Bush: - (1924​ ​–​ ​)​ ​The​ ​41st​ ​president​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States.​ ​He​ ​served​ ​as​ ​a​ ​congressman, the​ ​head​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Central​ ​Intelligence​ ​Agency,​ ​and​ ​Ronald​ ​Reagan's​ ​vice​ ​president. During​ ​his​ ​presidency,​ ​the​ ​Soviet​ ​Union​ ​fell​ ​apart,​ ​the​ ​Berlin​ ​Wall​ ​came​ ​down, and​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​was​ ​involved​ ​in​ ​military​ ​action​ ​in​ ​Panama​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Persian Gulf., CLINTON - Clinton​ ​used​ ​cable​ ​TV​ ​and​ ​other​ ​forms​ ​of​ ​new​ ​media​ ​to​ ​reach​ ​young​ ​and​ ​minority​ ​voters. He​ ​always​ ​seemed​ ​comfortable​ ​in​ ​front​ ​of​ ​the​ ​camera,​ ​even​ ​in​ ​unfamiliar​ ​situations. Clinton,​ ​like​ ​Bush,​ ​aired​ ​commercials​ ​on​ ​the​ ​major​ ​networks,​ ​as​ ​well. PEROT - - Independent​ ​candidate​ ​Ross​ ​Perot,​ ​a​ ​rich​ ​businessman​ ​from​ ​Texas,​ ​also​ ​tried​ ​a​ ​new media​ ​approach.​ ​He​ ​bought​ ​half-hour​ ​blocks​ ​during​ ​prime​ ​time​ ​(between​ ​8​ ​p.m.​ ​and​ ​11 p.m.)​ ​on​ ​network​ ​television.​ ​Perot​ ​used​ ​the​ ​time​ ​to​ ​introduce​ ​himself​ ​to​ ​voters​ ​and discuss​ ​his​ ​ideas. His​ ​approach​ ​was​ ​surprisingly​ ​effective​ ​—​ ​his​ ​"infomercials"​ ​attracted​ ​millions​ ​of​ ​voters. The​ ​O.​ ​J.​ ​Trial - - Nothing​ ​illustrated​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​"infotainment"​ ​more​ ​than​ ​the​ ​arrest​ ​and​ ​trial​ ​of​ ​former football​ ​star​ ​O.​ ​J.​ ​Simpson.​ ​Simpson​ ​was​ ​accused​ ​of​ ​murdering​ ​his​ ​ex-wife​ ​and​ ​her​ ​male friend​ ​in​ ​1994.​ ​His​ ​trial​ ​was​ ​aired​ ​on​ ​live​ ​television,​ ​making​ ​it​ ​a​ ​source​ ​of​ ​constant discussion​ ​and​ ​debate​ ​among​ ​Americans.​ ​Simpson​ ​was​ ​found​ ​not​ ​guilty​ ​in​ ​1995​ ​in​ ​a controversial​ ​verdict.​ ​The​ ​Simpson​ ​trial​ ​pointed​ ​to​ ​a​ ​larger​ ​trend.​ ​Celebrity​ ​news​ ​and scandals​ ​were​ ​often​ ​reported​ ​in​ ​mainstream​ ​news​ ​networks. Changes​ ​in​ ​t.v.​ ​In​ ​1980s​ ​&​ ​1990s? - - Channels​ ​like​ ​MTV​ ​,​ ​BET​ ​,​ ​&​ ​nickelodeon​ ​target​ ​at​ ​spec.​ ​audiences - Emergence​ ​of​ ​cable​ ​meant​ ​more​ ​channels​ ​to​ ​watch - 24​ ​hr.​ ​News​ ​channels. What​ ​was​ ​true​ ​of​ ​media​ ​camp.​ ​Dur.​ ​1992​ ​prez.​ ​Elect. - G.h.w.b.​ ​Used​ ​traditional​ ​campg. - Clint.​ ​Went​ ​on​ ​tv​ ​to​ ​attract​ ​young​ ​&​ ​minor.​ ​Works. - Perot​ ​bought​ ​30​ ​min.​ ​Infomerc.​ ​On​ ​ ​prime​ ​time​ ​netwrk.​ ​Tv THE​ ​MICROCHIP - - The​ ​invention​ ​of​ ​the​ ​microchip​ ​allowed​ ​computers​ ​to​ ​be​ ​smaller,​ ​faster,​ ​and​ ​less expensive​ ​than​ ​ever​ ​before. Microchip:​ ​An​ ​integrated​ ​circuit​ ​used​ ​in​ ​most​ ​electronic​ ​systems​ ​today​ ​including computers,​ ​telephones,​ ​MP3​ ​players,​ ​hospital​ ​equipment,​ ​transportation,​ ​and​ ​military equipment. Business​ ​and​ ​home​ ​computers​ ​became​ ​practical​ ​with​ ​the​ ​discovery​ ​that​ ​semiconductors could​ ​perform​ ​the​ ​same​ ​function.​ ​But​ ​what​ ​truly​ ​allowed​ ​computers​ ​to​ ​become​ ​small enough​ ​to​ ​fit​ ​in​ ​your​ ​hand​ ​was​ ​the​ ​invention​ ​of​ ​integrated​ ​circuits,​ ​commonly​ ​called microchips. The​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​cell​ ​phones​ ​from​ ​the​ ​brick​ ​to​ ​the​ ​iPhone. Early​ ​cell​ ​phones​ ​cost​ ​thousands​ ​of​ ​dollars​ ​and​ ​were​ ​available​ ​only​ ​to​ ​the​ ​wealthy.​ ​However,​ ​as time​ ​passed,​ ​cellular​ ​networks​ ​grew,​ ​phones​ ​became​ ​smaller,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​phones​ ​fell.​ ​By the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​1990s​ ​cell​ ​phones​ ​had​ ​become​ ​common.​ ​Cell​ ​phones​ ​not​ ​only​ ​kept​ ​people connected,​ ​but​ ​connected​ ​people​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Internet​ ​as​ ​well. - Entertainment​ ​was​ ​also​ ​transformed​ ​during​ ​the​ ​computer​ ​age.​ ​Within​ ​20​ ​years,​ ​music went​ ​from​ ​vinyl​ ​records​ ​to​ ​cassette​ ​tapes​ ​to​ ​compact​ ​discs​ ​to​ ​MP3s.​ ​Digital​ ​forms​ ​of music​ ​such​ ​as​ ​CDs​ ​and​ ​MP3s​ ​could​ ​be​ ​copied​ ​on​ ​home​ ​equipment​ ​with​ ​no​ ​loss​ ​in​ ​sound quality. Video​ ​Games During​ ​the​ ​1970s,​ ​video​ ​games​ ​were​ ​only​ ​available​ ​in​ ​arcades.​ ​By​ ​the​ ​late​ ​1970s,​ ​systems​ ​like Atari​ ​and​ ​Nintendo​ ​allowed​ ​people​ ​to​ ​play​ ​video​ ​games​ ​at​ ​home.​ ​Nintendo​ ​64,​ ​Sony​ ​PlayStation and​ ​Sega​ ​Genesis​ ​followed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​1990s,​ ​when​ ​portable​ ​game​ ​systems​ ​like​ ​the​ ​Gameboy​ ​also became​ ​popular. Movies Movies​ ​also​ ​changed​ ​forever.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​late​ ​1970s,​ ​the​ ​VCR​ ​allowed​ ​people​ ​to​ ​watch​ ​movies​ ​at home​ ​through​ ​VHS​ ​tapes.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​1990s,​ ​VHS​ ​tapes​ ​were​ ​replaced​ ​by​ ​DVDs. By​ ​then,​ ​films​ ​made​ ​less​ ​money​ ​through​ ​ticket​ ​sales​ ​and​ ​profited​ ​more​ ​from​ ​DVD​ ​sales,​ ​TV showings,​ ​and​ ​pay-per-view. Amateur​ ​film-making​ ​also​ ​took​ ​off​ ​in​ ​the​ ​media​ ​age.​ ​Digital​ ​video​ ​cameras​ ​and​ ​video-editing software​ ​improved​ ​and​ ​became​ ​more​ ​affordable.​ ​Video​ ​websites​ ​like​ ​YouTube.com​ ​became popular​ ​places​ ​for​ ​people​ ​to​ ​post​ ​their​ ​own​ ​films. - Cellphones​ ​:​ ​meant​ ​that​ ​you​ ​could​ ​always​ ​be​ ​connected​ ​to​ ​each​ ​other​ ​and​ ​media Internet​ ​:​ ​connected​ ​personal​ ​computers​ ​and​ ​transmitted​ ​new​ ​media Digital​ ​recording​ ​and​ ​cameras​ ​:​ ​made​ ​it​ ​easier​ ​for​ ​people​ ​to​ ​create​ ​their​ ​own​ ​media Digital​ ​music​ ​:​ ​changed​ ​the​ ​way​ ​the​ ​music​ ​industry​ ​worked Home​ ​recording​ ​:​ ​let​ ​people​ ​copy​ ​and​ ​trade​ ​media Mp3​ ​players​ ​:​ ​made​ ​music​ ​more​ ​portable TECHNOLOGY​ ​GROWTH - In​ ​some​ ​ways,​ ​the​ ​growth​ ​of​ ​technology​ ​only​ ​widened​ ​the​ ​gap​ ​between​ ​rich​ ​and​ ​poor. Although​ ​the​ ​prices​ ​of​ ​computers,​ ​Internet​ ​access​ ​and​ ​other​ ​technology​ ​fell​ ​during​ ​the 1990s,​ ​they​ ​were​ ​still​ ​far​ ​from​ ​cheap.​ ​This​ ​gap​ ​in​ ​access​ ​to​ ​technology​ ​came​ ​to​ ​be known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​"digital​ ​divide” - Internet​ ​:​ ​A​ ​system​ ​that​ ​allows​ ​billions​ ​of​ ​computers​ ​worldwide​ ​to​ ​connect​ ​with each​ ​other​ ​using​ ​television​ ​and​ ​telephone​ ​technology.​ ​A​ ​huge​ ​amount​ ​of information​ ​is​ ​available​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Internet;​ ​it​ ​also​ ​provides​ ​new​ ​ways​ ​to communicate​ ​and​ ​exchange​ ​video,​ ​music,​ ​and​ ​text​ ​files. - Digital​ ​divide:​ ​The​ ​gap​ ​that​ ​exists​ ​between​ ​people​ ​who​ ​use​ ​technology,​ ​such​ ​as Internet​ ​services,​ ​and​ ​people​ ​who​ ​do​ ​not.​ ​This​ ​gap​ ​occurs​ ​in​ ​income,​ ​education, and​ ​access​ ​to​ ​a​ ​variety​ ​of​ ​opportunities.." ...
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