9.18 Lecture Notes.docx

9.18 Lecture Notes.docx - 9.18.17 Lecture Notes(Exam 1 Exam...

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9.18.17 Lecture Notes (Exam 1) Exam: know the model of a neuron and how impulse travels through Foundations and Models of Abnormality : In science, the perspectives used to explain events are known as models or paradigms Models of Abnormality: Back then- a single model of abnormality Recently- several models are used to explain and treat abnormal functioning Theory- set of ideas that’s provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenon and for gathering and interpreting info about phenomenon - Many theories for why people develop a disorder - Not all theories are good, many are terrible - A theory must be supported by research, otherwise it is not a scientific theory, but rather in the purview of philosophy Approaches to Understanding Psychopathology : Biological Approaches- genetics, hormones, brain chemistry, brain damage Psychological Approaches – problems arise from peoples’ beliefs, life experiences, relationships, and thought patterns Sociocultural Approaches – cultural values and/or environment lived in leads to symptoms The Biological Model : - Adopts a medical perspective - Main focus is that psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism Brain anatomy: - Brain is composed of ~100 billions nerve cells (neurons) Brain anatomy and abnormal behavior - Clinical researchers have discovered connections between certain psychological disorders and problems in specific brain areas Brain chemistry: - Info is communicated throughout brain in the form of electrical impulses that travel from one neuron to one or more others - An impulse is first received by a neuron’s dendrites, travels down the axon, and is transmitted through the nerve endings to other neurons
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Brain Chemistry: - Neurons do not actually touch each other; they are separated by a space (the synapse), across which a message moves - When an electrical impulse reaches a nerve ending, the ending is stimulated to release a chemical, called neurotransmitter (NT), that travels across the synaptic space to receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons o Some NTs tell receiving neurons to “fire;” other NTs tell receiving neurons to stop firing
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Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior - Researchers have identified dozens of NTs o Ex: serotonin, dopamine, and GABA - Studies indicate that abnormal activity in certain NTs can lead to specific mental disorders Neurotransmitters
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