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us hist sem 2 - 4.4.1​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​...

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Unformatted text preview: 4.4.1​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​ ​2 What’s​ ​wrong​ ​with​ ​this​ ​picture? - - What​ ​can​ ​a​ ​country​ ​do​ ​to​ ​show​ ​its​ ​strength?​ ​It​ ​could​ ​have​ ​a​ ​military​ ​parade.​ ​The​ ​USSR held​ ​such​ ​parades,​ ​which​ ​showed​ ​off​ ​the​ ​country's​ ​soldiers​ ​and​ ​new​ ​weapons.​ ​But sometimes,​ ​the​ ​weapons​ ​weren't​ ​real.​ ​In​ ​fact,​ ​the​ ​Soviet​ ​Union​ ​did​ ​not​ ​have​ ​the​ ​money to​ ​produce​ ​many​ ​of​ ​the​ ​weapons​ ​they​ ​displayed.​ ​The​ ​fake​ ​missiles​ ​were​ ​meant​ ​to​ ​trick everybody​ ​—​ ​and​ ​they​ ​did. For​ ​over​ ​70​ ​years,​ ​American​ ​presidents​ ​worried​ ​about​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Soviet​ ​Union. Finally,​ ​change​ ​came​ ​from​ ​within.​ ​The​ ​United​ ​States​ ​played​ ​a​ ​part​ ​in​ ​this​ ​change:​ ​As Soviet​ ​citizens​ ​became​ ​more​ ​aware​ ​of​ ​what​ ​life​ ​in​ ​the​ ​West​ ​was​ ​like,​ ​they​ ​grew​ ​unhappy with​ ​life​ ​in​ ​their​ ​own​ ​country. Republicans​ ​and​ ​Democrats - - In​ ​general,​ ​red-state​ ​(Republican)​ ​voters​ ​support​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​American​ ​economic​ ​and military​ ​resources​ ​to​ ​develop​ ​democracy​ ​and​ ​human​ ​rights​ ​in​ ​other​ ​countries.​ ​They​ ​also emphasize​ ​traditional​ ​views​ ​of​ ​family​ ​and​ ​religion.​ ​They​ ​may​ ​define​ ​marriage​ ​as​ ​a relationship​ ​between​ ​one​ ​man​ ​and​ ​one​ ​woman​ ​and​ ​favor​ ​laws​ ​placing​ ​restrictions​ ​on​ ​the practice​ ​of​ ​abortion.​ ​Generally,​ ​red-state​ ​voters​ ​are​ ​more​ ​conservative. In​ ​general,​ ​blue-state​ ​(Democratic)​ ​voters​ ​support​ ​civil​ ​rights,​ ​equal​ ​rights​ ​for​ ​both​ ​sexes, environmental​ ​protection,​ ​more​ ​government​ ​rules​ ​and​ ​control​ ​of​ ​businesses,​ ​and increased​ ​social​ ​programs,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​health​ ​care.​ ​In​ ​general,​ ​Democrats​ ​favor​ ​going​ ​to war​ ​only​ ​for​ ​self-defense.​ ​Blue-state​ ​voters​ ​are​ ​usually​ ​more​ ​progressive. Ethnic​ ​Profiling​ ​and​ ​Torture - Then​ ​reports​ ​came​ ​from​ ​Abu​ ​Ghraib​ ​prison​ ​in​ ​Iraq​ ​and​ ​Guantanamo​ ​Bay​ ​in​ ​Cuba​ ​that prisoners​ ​were​ ​treated​ ​very​ ​badly​ ​by​ ​American​ ​soldiers.​ ​Guards​ ​used​ ​torture:​ ​hurting prisoners​ ​to​ ​force​ ​them​ ​to​ ​give​ ​up​ ​information.​ ​The​ ​Army​ ​said​ ​this​ ​protected​ ​American security,​ ​but​ ​others​ ​felt​ ​it​ ​was​ ​against​ ​American​ ​principles. Bush’s​ ​Second​ ​Term - When​ ​Bush​ ​won​ ​in​ ​2004,​ ​many​ ​people​ ​who​ ​supported​ ​him​ ​believed​ ​this​ ​showed​ ​that America​ ​supported​ ​the​ ​wars​ ​and​ ​his​ ​conservative​ ​policies.​ ​However,​ ​during​ ​his​ ​second term,​ ​public​ ​opinion​ ​turned​ ​against​ ​the​ ​president​ ​and​ ​his​ ​actions. Katrina - In​ ​aug.​ ​2005​ ​Hurricane​ ​katrina​ ​destroyed​ ​hund.​ ​Of.​ ​thous.​ ​Of​ ​homes​ ​&​ ​bus.​ ​In​ ​alabama, mississippi,​ ​and​ ​louisiana. In​ ​new​ ​orleans​ ​a​ ​wall​ ​that​ ​was​ ​supposed​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​the​ ​city​ ​from​ ​water​ ​rising​ ​around​ ​it suddenly​ ​broke. More​ ​ ​than​ ​700​ ​ppl​ ​drowned​ ​w.​ ​Thous.​ ​More​ ​trapped​ ​on​ ​roof​ ​of​ ​their​ ​houses. Warrantless​ ​wiretapping - Dec.​ ​2005​ ​ny​ ​times​ ​reported​ ​National​ ​Security​ ​Admin.​ ​(​ ​NSA​ ​)​ ​monitoring​ ​commun.​ ​W. U.S.​ ​email,​ ​phonec.​ ​,​ ​&​ ​text People​ ​thought​ ​this​ ​broke​ ​4th​ ​ammend.​ ​9​ ​being​ ​searched​ ​w/o​ ​a​ ​warrant. Bush​ ​claimed​ ​it​ ​was​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war​ ​on​ ​terror​ ​&​ ​necess.​ ​To​ ​keep​ ​amers.​ ​Safe​ ​fr.​ ​terrorists Progressives​ ​: - Increased​ ​regulation​ ​of​ ​financial​ ​sector Marriage​ ​rights​ ​for​ ​same​ ​sex​ ​couples Pro-choice Universal​ ​health​ ​care Use​ ​military​ ​only​ ​for​ ​defense Strict​ ​gun​ ​control Conservatives​ ​: - Reduce​ ​financial​ ​regulations No​ ​gay​ ​marriage Pro-life Private​ ​health​ ​care Use​ ​military​ ​to​ ​spread​ ​democracy​ ​abroad No​ ​firearm​ ​restrictions Great​ ​Recession - - - - In​ ​the​ ​1990s,​ ​the​ ​American​ ​economy​ ​went​ ​through​ ​enormous​ ​growth,​ ​but​ ​much​ ​of​ ​this growth​ ​was​ ​the​ ​result​ ​of​ ​financial​ ​“bubbles.”​ ​Lots​ ​of​ ​money​ ​went​ ​into​ ​industries​ ​that​ ​didn’t have​ ​much​ ​real​ ​value. The​ ​housing​ ​“bubble”,​ ​which​ ​ended​ ​in​ ​2008,​ ​was​ ​the​ ​largest.​ ​Housing​ ​prices​ ​continued to​ ​increase​ ​even​ ​while​ ​other​ ​areas​ ​of​ ​the​ ​economy​ ​were​ ​not​ ​doing​ ​well.​ ​There​ ​wasn’t enough​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​houses​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​the​ ​prices​ ​high,​ ​and​ ​suddenly,​ ​the​ ​prices​ ​dropped. This​ ​began​ ​what​ ​some​ ​called​ ​the​ ​“Great​ ​Recession,”​ ​the​ ​worst​ ​financial​ ​problem​ ​since the​ ​Great​ ​Depression.​ ​Many​ ​people​ ​questioned​ ​whether​ ​the​ ​government​ ​was​ ​doing enough​ ​to​ ​control​ ​the​ ​economy​ ​and​ ​keep​ ​it​ ​fair. Great​ ​Depression:​ ​A​ ​worldwide​ ​economic​ ​crisis​ ​that​ ​lasted​ ​from​ ​late​ ​1929​ ​until​ ​World War​ ​II. After​ ​the​ ​internet​ ​“dot.com”​ ​bubble​ ​ended​ ​in​ ​1999,​ ​the​ ​Federal​ ​Reserve​ ​Commission lowered​ ​the​ ​interest​ ​rate.​ ​This​ ​made​ ​it​ ​easier​ ​to​ ​get​ ​credit​ ​cards​ ​or​ ​get​ ​money​ ​from​ ​banks to​ ​pay​ ​for​ ​houses.​ ​How​ ​do​ ​you​ ​think​ ​consumers​ ​responded? - Consumer​ ​spending​ ​made​ ​the​ ​economy​ ​grow,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​US​ ​got​ ​richer.​ ​Housing was​ ​in​ ​high​ ​demand,​ ​because​ ​banks​ ​were​ ​giving​ ​more​ ​people​ ​money​ ​to​ ​buy. Prices​ ​rose​ ​quickly.​ ​Then,​ ​they​ ​fell. - - - People​ ​assumed​ ​the​ ​value​ ​of​ ​homes​ ​would​ ​rise​ ​forever.​ ​Consumers​ ​were​ ​willing​ ​to increase​ ​their​ ​debt,​ ​because​ ​they​ ​believed​ ​the​ ​value​ ​of​ ​their​ ​house​ ​would​ ​rise​ ​to ​cover their​ ​extra​ ​spending.​ ​They​ ​went​ ​shopping,​ ​traveled,​ ​and​ ​even​ ​bought​ ​more​ ​houses. What​ ​do​ ​you​ ​think​ ​happened​ ​when​ ​the​ ​“bubble”​ ​ended? - The​ ​value​ ​of​ ​many​ ​people’s​ ​houses​ ​dropped​ ​below​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​debt​ ​they​ ​had to​ ​pay​ ​back.​ ​American​ ​consumers​ ​lost​ ​much​ ​of​ ​their​ ​wealth,​ ​and​ ​they​ ​couldn’t pay​ ​for​ ​what​ ​they’d​ ​bought.​ ​Many​ ​houses​ ​were​ ​foreclosed,​ ​or​ ​taken​ ​back​ ​by​ ​the bank​ ​that​ ​lent​ ​the​ ​money​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​them. Consumers​ ​thought​ ​their​ ​houses​ ​would​ ​continue​ ​to​ ​rise​ ​in​ ​value,​ ​and​ ​so​ ​did​ ​banks.​ ​They developed​ ​a​ ​complex​ ​system​ ​of​ ​“trading”​ ​risk​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​these​ ​people’s​ ​housing​ ​debt,​ ​or “mortgages.”​ ​The​ ​system​ ​was​ ​so​ ​complicated​ ​that​ ​even​ ​the​ ​banks​ ​didn’t​ ​understand​ ​it. Why​ ​did​ ​they​ ​put​ ​money​ ​into​ ​something​ ​they​ ​didn’t​ ​understand? - What​ ​they​ ​did​ ​know​ ​is​ ​that​ ​the​ ​system​ ​was​ ​making​ ​them​ ​money.​ ​They​ ​were ready​ ​to​ ​risk​ ​even​ ​more.​ ​At​ ​the​ ​beginning,​ ​American​ ​spending​ ​helped​ ​the​ ​whole world​ ​economy​ ​grow.​ ​Housing​ ​prices,​ ​for​ ​example,​ ​rose​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world. The​ ​sudden​ ​collapse​ ​of​ ​this​ ​housing​ ​market​ ​in​ ​2007-2008​ ​shook​ ​markets​ ​around​ ​the world.​ ​The​ ​US​ ​government​ ​worried​ ​that​ ​if​ ​the​ ​largest​ ​banks​ ​in​ ​the​ ​US​ ​went​ ​out​ ​of business,​ ​the​ ​entire​ ​financial​ ​system​ ​would​ ​be​ ​in​ ​danger.​ ​ ​Several​ ​insurance​ ​companies and​ ​General​ ​Motors​ ​were​ ​also​ ​called​ ​“too​ ​big​ ​to​ ​fail.”​ ​Many​ ​people​ ​lost​ ​their​ ​jobs. President​ ​Bush​ ​had​ ​to​ ​act,​ ​but​ ​what​ ​should​ ​he​ ​do? - President​ ​Bush’s​ ​second​ ​term​ ​was​ ​ending.​ ​The​ ​president​ ​pushed​ ​Congress​ ​to give​ ​money,​ ​called​ ​“bailouts,”​ ​to​ ​save​ ​the​ ​companies​ ​and​ ​banks​ ​that​ ​were​ ​in danger.​ ​How​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​the​ ​larger​ ​results​ ​of​ ​the​ ​recession​ ​would​ ​be​ ​left​ ​to​ ​the next​ ​administration.​ ​This​ ​would​ ​be​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​main​ ​issues​ ​in​ ​the​ ​2008​ ​election. ‘08​ ​candidates - - Obama​ ​said​ ​that​ ​under​ ​him,​ ​change​ ​could​ ​go​ ​further.​ ​He​ ​promised​ ​progressive​ ​policies that​ ​raised​ ​people’s​ ​spirits.​ ​He​ ​brought​ ​them​ ​hope​ ​that​ ​America​ ​would​ ​become​ ​stronger and​ ​more​ ​just. Clinton’s​ ​support​ ​came​ ​from​ ​Democrats​ ​in​ ​the​ ​political​ ​center.​ ​Obama​ ​got​ ​his​ ​support mostly​ ​from​ ​the​ ​far​ ​left​ ​and​ ​from​ ​new​ ​voters. Clinton​ ​would​ ​have​ ​been​ ​the​ ​first​ ​female​ ​president,​ ​while​ ​Obama​ ​would​ ​be​ ​the​ ​first president​ ​who​ ​wasn’t​ ​white. Barack​ ​obama - - His​ ​name​ ​was​ ​Barack​ ​Obama.​ ​Born​ ​to​ ​an​ ​immigrant​ ​father​ ​from​ ​Kenya​ ​and​ ​a​ ​white mother​ ​from​ ​Kansas,​ ​Obama​ ​grew​ ​up​ ​in​ ​Hawaii​ ​and​ ​attended​ ​Columbia​ ​University​ ​in New​ ​York.​ ​After​ ​college,​ ​he​ ​worked​ ​with​ ​a​ ​Catholic​ ​community​ ​development​ ​organization in​ ​Chicago. He​ ​then​ ​went​ ​to​ ​Harvard​ ​Law​ ​School​ ​in​ ​1988,​ ​where​ ​he​ ​became​ ​the​ ​first​ ​black​ ​president of​ ​the​ ​Harvard​ ​Law​ ​Review.​ ​He​ ​went​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Chicago​ ​to​ ​teach​ ​constitutional​ ​law,​ ​and​ ​he continued​ ​to​ ​organize​ ​communities​ ​and​ ​bring​ ​out​ ​voters.​ ​With​ ​help​ ​from​ ​these communities,​ ​he​ ​reached​ ​the​ ​Illinois​ ​State​ ​Senate,​ ​and,​ ​in​ ​2004,​ ​United​ ​States​ ​Senate. - - Barack​ ​Obama:​ ​(1961​ ​–​ ​)​ ​The​ ​44th​ ​and​ ​current​ ​president​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States.​ ​He​ ​was elected​ ​in​ ​2008​ ​with​ ​promises​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​the​ ​economy,​ ​fix​ ​the​ ​health​ ​care​ ​system,​ ​and end​ ​U.S.​ ​involvement​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Iraqi​ ​war.​ ​He​ ​is​ ​the​ ​first​ ​African​ ​American​ ​to​ ​hold​ ​the​ ​office and​ ​was​ ​reelected​ ​to​ ​a​ ​second​ ​term​ ​in​ ​2012. Immigrant:​ ​A​ ​person​ ​who​ ​moves​ ​into​ ​another​ ​country​ ​to​ ​live. Catholic:​ ​A​ ​term​ ​that​ ​refers​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Roman​ ​Catholic​ ​Church,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​led​ ​by​ ​the​ ​pope.​ ​It​ ​is the​ ​largest​ ​Christian​ ​church​ ​and​ ​claims​ ​to​ ​be​ ​the​ ​first​ ​church​ ​founded​ ​by​ ​Jesus​ ​Christ's followers. Obama’s​ ​presidency: - Eric​ ​Holder​ ​:​ ​2009,​ ​First​ ​African​ ​American​ ​Attorney​ ​General. Hilda​ ​Solis​ ​:​ ​First​ ​Hispanic​ ​Secretary​ ​of​ ​Labor Robert​ ​Gates​ ​:​ ​(​ ​secretary​ ​of​ ​defense​ ​)​ ​only​ ​defense​ ​secretary​ ​in​ ​US​ ​history​ ​asked​ ​to stay​ ​by​ ​a​ ​newly​ ​elected​ ​president. Hillary​ ​Clinton​ ​:​ ​(​ ​secretary​ ​of​ ​state​ ​) Rahm​ ​Emmanuel​ ​:​ ​(​ ​chief​ ​of​ ​staff​ ​)​ ​one​ ​of​ ​obama’s​ ​most​ ​import.​ ​Advisors​ ​he’s​ ​part​ ​of​ ​an informal​ ​cabinet Signed​ ​stimulus​ ​bill​ ​soon​ ​as​ ​stepped​ ​into​ ​office Stimulus​ ​bill​ ​said​ ​that​ ​gov​ ​had​ ​to​ ​give​ ​money​ ​for​ ​public​ ​works​ ​&​ ​infrastructure​ ​projects across​ ​the​ ​country​ ​even​ ​though​ ​the​ ​gov​ ​was​ ​in​ ​debt​ ​already These​ ​projects​ ​would​ ​amers.​ ​jobs Signed​ ​lilly​ ​ledbetter​ ​act​ ​bill​ ​to​ ​make​ ​it​ ​easier​ ​for​ ​women​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​discrimination​ ​at​ ​work Signed​ ​off​ ​on​ ​children’s​ ​health​ ​insurance​ ​program​ ​reauthorization​ ​act​ ​to​ ​help​ ​states​ ​pay for​ ​health​ ​insurance​ ​for​ ​children Prez.​ ​bush​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​sign​ ​these​ ​2​ ​bills The​ ​primary​ ​impact​ ​of​ ​these​ ​bills​ ​was​ ​that​ ​they​ ​were​ ​symbols​ ​of​ ​“change”​ ​and​ ​they​ ​were important​ ​pieces​ ​of​ ​legislation Health​ ​care - A​ ​major​ ​Obama​ ​campaign​ ​promise​ ​was​ ​to​ ​reform​ ​health​ ​care.​ ​Paying​ ​for​ ​people​ ​without insurance​ ​raises​ ​the​ ​price​ ​of​ ​health​ ​care​ ​for​ ​everyone.​ ​Every​ ​politician​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​improve the​ ​system,​ ​but​ ​few​ ​agreed​ ​on​ ​how.​ ​The​ ​following​ ​are​ ​the​ ​major​ ​options​ ​that​ ​were considered. Single​ ​player​ ​system - Insurance​ ​is​ ​provided​ ​for​ ​every​ ​citizen. Citizens​ ​pay​ ​a​ ​tax​ ​to​ ​the​ ​government​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​paying​ ​an​ ​insurance​ ​company. Medicare​ ​for​ ​older​ ​citizens,​ ​works​ ​this​ ​way. Public​ ​option - Every​ ​citizen​ ​must​ ​buy​ ​insurance. People​ ​can​ ​choose​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​insurance​ ​from​ ​the​ ​government. Private​ ​insurance​ ​companies​ ​stay​ ​in​ ​business 4.4.1​ ​U.S.​ ​HIST.​ ​SEM.​ ​2 Mandatory​ ​insurance - Every​ ​citizen​ ​must​ ​buy​ ​insurance People​ ​cannot​ ​buy​ ​insurance​ ​from​ ​the​ ​government. Everyone​ ​must​ ​buy​ ​private​ ​insurance,​ ​but​ ​insurance​ ​companies​ ​must​ ​accept​ ​everyone. Private​ ​health​ ​care - People​ ​can​ ​buy​ ​insurance​ ​if​ ​they​ ​want​ ​to. Strong​ ​laws​ ​regulate​ ​how​ ​insurance​ ​companies​ ​act. People​ ​cannot​ ​buy​ ​insurance​ ​from​ ​the​ ​government. ...
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