Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Chronic Diseases...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Chronic Diseases – Long term diseases, not contagious and largely preventable Factors that can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases are: An unhealthy diet and physical inactivity Tobacco use and alcohol consumption Genetics and economic factors Life expectancy rising, but 7 out of 10 deaths now due to non-communicable diseases Global progress on reducing unsafe water and sanitation but diet, obesity, and drug use -> increasing threat Epidemiological Transition - patterns of disease shifts away from infectious and nutrient deficiencies and towards metabolic syndrome-related diseases and some type of cancers The Nutrient Transition The Nutrient Transition – shift towards a higher density diet with a greater role for fat and added sugars in foods Reduced intakes of complex carbs, dietary fiber, reduced fruit and vegetable intakes Most chronic diseases are expressed in adulthood; therefore, it is a critical time for reducing risk factors and increasing effective treatment The main burden of chronic diseases is observed in people older than 60 The Macronutrients Carbs, fats, proteins Carbs: Carbs are nutrients made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbs supply energy for your body’s functions Simple Carbs: Sugars that enter the bloodstream rapidly and provide quick energy Provide calories but few vitamins/minerals Ex: fruits, honey, milk, sugars added to cookies, candies, etc… Complex Carbs: Made up of sugars that are linked together chemically to form long chains Ex: grains, vegetables, rice, cereals Starch : o Food substance that is made and stored in most plants o Provide long lasting energy Fiber : o type of complex carb found in plants o high-fiber diet: helps prevent constipation may reduce risk of colon cancer
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may help prevent heart disease o part of grains and plant food that cannot be digested is called fiber Insoluble Fiber : o binds with water to help produce bowel movements (prevent constipation) o associated with reduced risk of colon cancer o
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